The Twelve

12 In these days he went out to the mountain to pray, and all night he continued in prayer to God. 13 And when day came, he called his disciples and chose from them twelve, whom he named apostles: 14 Simon, whom he named Peter, and Andrew his brother, and James and John, and Philip, and Bartholomew, 15 and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon who was called the Zealot, 16 and Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.

17 And he came down with them and stood on a level place, with a great crowd of his disciples and a great multitude of people from all Judea and Jerusalem and the seacoast of Tyre and Sidon, 18 who came to hear him and to be healed of their diseases. And those who were troubled with unclean spirits were cured. 19 And all the crowd sought to touch him, for power came out from him and healed them all. Luke 6:12-19 ESV

Luke was the author of the gospel that bears his name as well as the book of Acts. Both were written to an individual named Theophilus, a close acquaintance of Luke’s. These two works were intended to provide Theophilus with a complete chronicle of Jesus’ earthly life and ministry, while also describing what happened to the disciples after Jesus returned to His Father’s side.

He prefaced the book of Acts with a note of explanation, informing Theophilus of the connection between the two works.

In the first book, O Theophilus, I have dealt with all that Jesus began to do and teach, until the day when he was taken up, after he had given commands through the Holy Spirit to the apostles whom he had chosen. – Acts 1:1-2 ESV

Luke went on to record Jesus’ last words to His disciples just before He departed.

“But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.” – Acts 1:8 ESV

The rest of the book of Acts provides a detailed history of what happened after the disciples returned to Jerusalem. The Holy Spirit came just as Jesus had promised and the disciples were dramatically and permanently transformed by His indwelling presence and power.

As one reads Luke’s gospel account, it becomes apparent that he had a two-part series in mind from the beginning. He had likely been conducting first-person interviews with the disciples and other followers of Jesus. He had spent countless hours chronicling the events of Jesus’ life, all the way to His death in Jerusalem. But for Luke, that was not the end of the story, it was only the beginning. Jesus’ resurrection and ascension paved the way for the coming of the Holy Spirit and the beginning of the church – the Body of Christ.

So, in his gospel, Luke shows a keen interest in how Jesus chose His disciples because he knew these men would play a vital role in the future of the ministry. Luke is the only gospel author who states that Jesus called His disciples apostles. The term “apostle” means “sent ones” and Luke uses it six times in his gospel and 28 times in the book of Acts. These men would become the means by which Jesus carried on His ministry even after His departure. Jesus would commission them to carry the Gospel message to the ends of the earth.

“Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.” – Matthew 28:19-20 ESV

But how did these particular men end up with this weighty responsibility? What were their qualifications? Why did were they chosen to carry on the work of Jesus? Luke attempts to answer these questions as he recounts Jesus’ selection of the twelve. And he begins by explaining that Jesus spent an entire night in prayer before choosing the men who would become His apostles. Luke has made it clear that Jesus had many followers. He was constantly surrounded by large crowds and there were many who had begun to believe that He was the long-awaited Messiah. But after His all-night conversation with His Heavenly Father, Jesus called His followers to join Him on the mountain top.

And he went up on the mountain and called to him those whom he desired, and they came to him. And he appointed twelve (whom he also named apostles) so that they might be with him and he might send them out to preach and have authority to cast out demons. – Mark 3:13-15 ESV

Jesus set apart these men from among all the others, and they would become His inner circle. He would spend the next three years pouring into their lives and preparing them for the future ministry they would inherit when His work was done.

It should not be overlooked that Jesus went to a mountain top in order to receive direction from His Heavenly Father. And immediately after this encounter, He called the men who would become His apostles and began to teach them. This entire scene is reminiscent of Moses’ ascent to the top of Mount Sinai where He received the Law from God and then took it down to the valley, where he taught it to the people. Jesus was the new Moses, imparting the commands of God to the people so that they might live in keeping with His will and in a way that would honor His name. Jesus was the fulfillment of the promise that God had made to Moses.

“I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers. And I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. And whoever will not listen to my words that he shall speak in my name, I myself will require it of him. – Deuteronomy 18:18-19 ESV

Jesus descended from the mountain accompanied by His 12 disciples and began to teach the large crowd that had gathered.

And he came down with them and stood on a level place, with a great crowd of his disciples and a great multitude of people from all Judea and Jerusalem and the seacoast of Tyre and Sidon – Luke 6:17 ESV

Despite His confrontations with the religious leaders, Jesus’ reputation continued to spread. While the high priest and his fellow members of the Sanhedrin were busy trying to figure out how to eliminate Jesus, the people were flocking from all over Israel to see and hear Him. And Luke records that the audience consisted of two groups: “A great crowd of his disciples and a great multitude of people.” In other words, those who came were made up of the convinced and the curious. There were some who believed Jesus to be the Messiah and others who had come to see if all the rumors about His miracles were true. And, as always, there were those who came to be healed. For them, the debate over whether Jesus was the Messiah was secondary and superfluous. Their interest in Him was far more personal and practical. The diseased and demon-possessed had traveled all the way to Galilee in the hopes of receiving healing from Jesus. And they were not disappointed. Luke reports that even “those who were troubled with unclean spirits were cured” (Luke 6:18 ESV).

For the first time, the 12 men whom Jesus had chosen, found themselves in the center of all the interest surrounding Him. They were crushed by the crowds pushing and shoving to get close to Jesus. Luke provides a somewhat benign description of the scene: “Everyone tried to touch him, because healing power went out from him, and he healed everyone” (Luke 6:19 NLT). But it seems likely that the newly appointed disciples found all of this to be a bit overwhelming. They were no longer spectators, standing on the outside and observing Jesus from a distance. They found themselves in the eye of the storm and probably wondering what they had gotten themselves into. An odd mixture of excitement, fear, and wonder must have filled their minds as they viewed the chaotic scene taking place around them.

This was just the beginning. These 12 men had no idea what was coming next or what the following three years would contain. But suddenly, Jesus turned His attention from those who clamored for healing and addressed the men He had chosen to be His apostles. And what He had to say to them would be like nothing they had ever heard before. As mind-blowing as His miracles had been, they were about to be blown away by the content of His message.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson