The Promise of God’s Presence

12 Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, with all the remnant of the people, obeyed the voice of the Lord their God, and the words of Haggai the prophet, as the Lord their God had sent him. And the people feared the Lord. 13 Then Haggai, the messenger of the Lord, spoke to the people with the Lord’s message, “I am with you, declares the Lord.” 14 And the Lord stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, and the spirit of all the remnant of the people. And they came and worked on the house of the Lord of hosts, their God, 15 on the twenty-fourth day of the month, in the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king. Haggai 1:12-15 ESV

It seems that once the people realized that the meager harvests, financial troubles, and lack of sustenance they were suffering were a punishment from the hand of God, they decided to heed the words of Haggai. Speaking on behalf of God, Haggai had pointed out the disastrous nature of their current conditions.

“You have planted much but harvest little. You eat but are not satisfied. You drink but are still thirsty. You put on clothes but cannot keep warm. Your wages disappear as though you were putting them in pockets filled with holes!” – Haggai 1:6 NLT

Haggie let them know that their suffering had been brought on them by God.

You hoped for rich harvests, but they were poor. And when you brought your harvest home, I blew it away.” – Haggai 1:9 NLT

And he had delivered God’s message that more trouble was on the horizon.

I have called for a drought on your fields and hills—a drought to wither the grain and grapes and olive trees and all your other crops, a drought to starve you and your livestock and to ruin everything you have worked so hard to get.” – Haggai 1:11 NLT

And if they harbored any doubts or questions about the cause of their suffering, God had made it painfully clear.

“Because my house lies in ruins, says the Lord of Heaven’s Armies, while all of you are busy building your own fine houses. It’s because of you that the heavens withhold the dew and the earth produces no crops. – Haggai 1:9-10 NLT

They were guilty and stood condemned before God. But what makes this whole situation so interesting was that the very temple they had failed to rebuild was the one place they could have turned for divine intervention and assistance. When Solomon had celebrated the opening of the original temple centuries earlier, he had included the following line in his prayer of dedication:

“If there is a famine in the land or a plague or crop disease or attacks of locusts or caterpillars… and if your people Israel pray about their troubles, raising their hands toward this Temple, then hear from heaven where you live, and forgive. – 1 Kings 8:37-39 NLT

But there was no temple because the people had refused to carry out the commands of God and finish its construction. Sixteen years earlier they had laid the foundation, but the construction site had remained dormant since that time. Not a single stone was put into place. No lumber had been harvested or milled. But now, because of the words spoken by Haggai, the people were suddenly stirred into action. From the governmental and religious leaders to the lowliest peasant, everyone decided to obey the voice of the Lord.

Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, with all the remnant of the people, obeyed the voice of the Lord their God, and the words of Haggai the prophet, as the Lord their God had sent him. And the people feared the Lord. – Haggai 1:12 ESV

Haggai uses the term “remnant” to refer to the people of Judah. This was the very same word that the prophet Isaiah used when foretelling of God’s pending judgment against Judah at the hands of the Babylonians and His gracious plan to allow some of them to return to the land.

A remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God. For though your people Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will return. – Isaiah 10:21-22 ESV

Isaiah used the Hebrew word, שְׁאָר (šᵊ’ār), which is derived from another Hebrew word that refers to “that which is left, left over, or left behind.” That word, שְׁאֵרִית (šᵊ’ērîṯ) is the one that Haggai used. It carries the idea of “that which is left or remaining.” It’s not just a numerical designation, indicating a smaller group of individuals, but it is also a way of conveying that those who returned had been set apart by God for a special purpose. When King Cyrus had issued his decree allowing the Jews to return, the vast majority of them decided to remain in Persia rather than make the arduous journey back to Judah. They had become acclimated to their lives in Babylon and had no desire to suffer the hardships that would accompany a return to the land.

But a remnant had decided to take the risk and go back to the land of promise. Yet, because of their disobedience, they found the prospects of their return to be anything but promising. And when this “whole remnant of God’s people began to obey the message from the Lord their God” (Haggai 1:12 NLT), their corporate commitment to obey was met with an encouraging message from God.

“I am with you, says the Lord!” – Haggai 1:13 NLT

These words were meant to be a reminder of the promise that God had made to the people of Israel when Solomon had finished the construction of the temple.

“I have heard your prayer and have chosen this place for myself as a house of sacrifice. When I shut up the heavens so that there is no rain, or command the locust to devour the land, or send pestilence among my people, if my people who are called by my name humble themselves, and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven and will forgive their sin and heal their land. Now my eyes will be open and my ears attentive to the prayer that is made in this place. For now I have chosen and consecrated this house that my name may be there forever. My eyes and my heart will be there for all time.” – 2 Chronicles 7:12-16 ESV

God had shut up the heavens and withheld the rain. Now it was time for the people, who were called by His name, to humble themselves, pray, and turn from their wicked ways. The temple lay in ruins, but God wanted His people to know that He was with them. His house was may have been non-existent but had not precluded His power or presence. He was among them and ready to act on behalf of them. All they needed to do was repent and return to Him.

God had never truly left them. And while the temple may have been nothing more than a pile of dust-covered rubble, their God remained powerful, ever-present, and ready to act on their behalf. They could count on God.

All the way back to when the people were preparing to enter the land of promise for the first time, Moses had told them, “It is the Lord who goes before you. He will be with you; he will not leave you or forsake you. Do not fear or be dismayed” (Deuteronomy 31:8 ESV). And centuries later, King David would echo those words when he challenged his young son, Solomon, to build a house for God

Be strong and courageous and do it. Do not be afraid and do not be dismayed, for the Lord God, even my God, is with you. He will not leave you or forsake you, until all the work for the service of the house of the Lord is finished.” – 1 Chronicles 28:20 ESV

And when Solomon had completed the construction of the Lord’s house, he had finished his prayer of dedication with the following benediction.

The Lord our God be with us, as he was with our fathers. May he not leave us or forsake us, that he may incline our hearts to him, to walk in all his ways and to keep his commandments, his statutes, and his rules, which he commanded our fathers.” – 1 Kings 8:57-58 ESV

God had been with them when they had entered the land of promise for the very first time. God had been with King David, helping him establish Israel as one of the mightiest nations on earth. And God had been with Solomon, blessing him with great wisdom and wealth, and providing him with a period of peace and prosperity in which he was able to complete the construction of the temple. Now, centuries later, God was letting His people know that He was still with them. But as always, God was looking for humble obedience from His chosen people. He had graciously allowed a remnant to remain so that His will might be done. He was far from done with His people and He had great things in store for them because He was going to accomplish great things through them.

And stirred by the words of Haggai and the promise of God’s presence, “they came and worked on the house of the Lord of hosts, their God” ( Haggai 1:14 ESV).

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

New English Translation (NET)NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Jesus Christ is Lord

41 But he said to them, “How can they say that the Christ is David’s son? 42 For David himself says in the Book of Psalms,

“‘The Lord said to my Lord,
“Sit at my right hand,
43     until I make your enemies your footstool.”’

44 David thus calls him Lord, so how is he his son?”

45 And in the hearing of all the people he said to his disciples, 46 “Beware of the scribes, who like to walk around in long robes, and love greetings in the marketplaces and the best seats in the synagogues and the places of honor at feasts, 47 who devour widows’ houses and for a pretense make long prayers. They will receive the greater condemnation.” Luke 20:41-47 ESV

Jesus’ last exchange with the Sadducees left them at a loss for words, but more determined than ever to rid themselves of this irritating thorn in their sides. Jesus had deftly handled their cleverly crafted question about the resurrection, easily exposing their poor understanding of the Scriptures. Their tendency to read God’s Word through the lens of their own earth-bound perspective had resulted in a gross misinterpretation of its content and a misapplication of its truths.

And the entire debate between Jesus and the religious leaders of Israel revolved around the issue of authority. They believed themselves to be the God-ordained authority figures over the nation of Israel. Yet, Jesus had appeared on the scene, making radical claims to be the Son of God and the Messiah of Israel. His self-proclaimed identification as the divine King of Israel easily trumped their claims of spiritual superiority and divinely mandated authority. And it didn’t help the cause of the scribes, Pharisees, and Sadducees that this Rabbi from Nazareth backed up His words with inexplicable miracles and powerful teaching.

As we read through the events surrounding the last week of Jesus’ life, we should begin to recognize that this is really about two kingdoms in conflict – the one the Pharisees and religious leaders had come to know, love and control; and the one that Jesus had come to establish. As John the Baptist began his ministry, paving the way for the coming of the Messiah, he had told the people of Israel, “Repent of your sins and turn to God, for the Kingdom of Heaven is near” (Matthew 3:2 NLT).

His call to repentance was not just an encouragement to change their behavior, but it was a demand that they change their minds. John was calling them to completely alter their preconceived notions concerning God, sin, the kingdom, the Messiah, and the means by which man can be restored to a right relationship with God. Repentance would require them to do an about-face concerning what they currently believed about all of those things. And that change of mind and heart would result in a change in behavior.

In the world into which Jesus came, the Jewish people had strong opinions about these matters, the byproduct of centuries of man-made decrees, religious doctrines, and dogma. They thought they had God figured out and were convinced that they knew what they had to do to deal with sin. But they had grown callous to God and carefree about their own sin, justifying their actions and downplaying their own guilt. They put a lot of stock in their status as descendants of Abraham and in their unique identity as God’s chosen people. But John the Baptist had come preaching a call to repentance. He had told them that the Kingdom of Heaven was close at hand. And Jesus came preaching that very same message, telling them, “Repent of your sins and turn to God, for the Kingdom of Heaven is near” (Matthew 4:17 NLT).

The Kingdom of Heaven was near – in the form of the King of Heaven – Jesus Himself. This was a statement of authority and divine representation. Jesus was Emmanuel – God with us. He was the one true King. But the Jewish people failed to recognize Him as such.

This brings us to today’s passage, where Jesus continues to spar with the religious leaders of Israel. He had weathered a relentless gauntlet of questions from these men, as they attempted to expose and entrap Him. But this time Jesus turned the tables on them by requiring them to answer a question from Him. In doing so, He reveals some Messianic misconceptions on their part. He exposes their faulty views of who the Messiah would be and what He would do when He came.

Matthew records that Jesus began this conversation with a very simple, yet revealing question: “What do you think about the Messiah? Whose son is he?” (Matthew 22:42a NLT).

Jesus already knew what their response would be, and that answer would reveal much about their understanding of not only the Messiah but of His coming Kingdom.

“They replied, ‘He is the son of David.’” – Matthew 22:42b NLT

So, what does this answer tell us about their view of the Messiah? They believed this long-anticipated deliverer of Israel would be a descendant of David. But it also reveals that they viewed the Messiah’s kingdom would be of this earth and not heavenly in nature. In other words, they were anticipating a king just like David had been. They were expecting a ruler, a royal heir to David, who would wear his crown and sit on his throne, re-establishing Israel’s power in the region. They weren’t looking for a Savior from sin, but a deliverer from subjugation to Rome.

But this is where Jesus exposed their incomplete understanding of the Messiah’s identity and role. In Luke’s version of the story, he reports that Jesus posed the question: “Why is it that the Messiah is said to be the son of David?” (Luke 20:41 NLT). Then Jesus presented the well-educated religious leaders with a conundrum. 

For David himself wrote in the book of Psalms:

‘The Lord said to my Lord,
    Sit in the place of honor at my right hand
until I humble your enemies,
    making them a footstool under your feet.’” – Luke 20:42 NLT

Matthew records Jesus’ statement in the form of a question: “How is it then that David, in the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying, ‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at my right hand, until I put your enemies under your feet”’?” (Matthew 22:44 ESV).

At first glance, it sounds like Jesus is posing some kind of riddle or trick question. But He actually quoted a well-known Messianic passage found in Psalm 110:1. The Sadducees would have agreed that this passage referred to the coming Messiah or Davidic descendant. In fact, over the centuries, this psalm had been applied to each successive king in the Davidic dynasty and was used to refer to the ideal Davidic king. As a result, they would have been very familiar with the passage and its application to the coming Messiah. So, Jesus pointed out that in the psalm, David calls the Messiah his Lord.

If the coming Messiah was to be a “son” or descendant of David, the greatest king Israel had ever had, why would David call this man his “Lord?” To understand this question, you have to recognize that there are two different words used for “Lord” in Psalm 110. The first is Jehovah, a noun used to refer to God. It is the proper name of the God of Israel. The second word is adon, a noun that means “lord” or “master”. But when used in conjunction with Lord (Jehovah), it typically refers to God’s sovereignty or authority. So, you could read the line in Psalm 110 this way: The LORD (God) said to my (David’s) Lord (Messiah)

The point Jesus was making was that David knew something about the Messiah that the Pharisees did not. That’s why Jesus asked them a further question: “Since David called the Messiah ‘Lord,’ how can the Messiah be his son?” (Luke 20:44 NLT).

The Pharisees had a limited view of the Messiah. They believed He would be an earthly and fully human descendant of David – nothing more, nothing less. But Jesus’ point was that David seemed to know that the Messiah would be MORE than just his descendant. He would be divine and have God-given authority to rule and reign over God’s Kingdom. He would be David’s LORD and Master. He would be a divinely appointed ruler with power and authority far beyond anything David had known.

But the Pharisees couldn’t bring themselves to see or acknowledge this. Jesus was not what they had been expecting and, most certainly, not what they wanted. He didn’t look or act like a king. And the Israelites still wanted a king just like all the other nations. They wanted a royal ruler on their terms and according to their definition. It was the very same problem their ancestors had when they had demanded that the prophet Samuel appoint them a king like all the other nations.

They had rejected God as their King and, in response, God had given them Saul. Now, centuries later, they were demanding the same thing. But God was not going to give them another Saul. He was going to give them another David, an actual descendant of David, but a man greater than David had ever been. He would be the God-man, the Son of God, and the ultimate Savior of the world.

At this point in the conversation, Jesus turns His attention to His disciples but He spoke so all could hear what He had to say. The religious leaders, who had grown strangely silent, still had the capacity to hear Jesus speak, and what He had to say was aimed directly at them.

“Beware of these teachers of religious law! For they like to parade around in flowing robes and love to receive respectful greetings as they walk in the marketplaces. And how they love the seats of honor in the synagogues and the head table at banquets. Yet they shamelessly cheat widows out of their property and then pretend to be pious by making long prayers in public. – Luke 20:46-47 NLT

Jesus was pulling no punches. He was calling out these men for their self-righteous and hypocritical displays of false piety. And in doing so, Jesus echoed the words from His own sermon on the mount, delivered some three years earlier.

“Beware of practicing your righteousness before other people in order to be seen by them, for then you will have no reward from your Father who is in heaven.” – Matthew 6:1 ESV

“And when you pray, you must not be like the hypocrites. For they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and at the street corners, that they may be seen by others. – Matthew 6:5 ESV

This was a recurring theme in Jesus’ teaching. Throughout His ministry, He regularly exposed the hypocritical nature of these self-righteous demagogues. Earlier in his gospel account, Luke records Jesus leveling the same condemning indictment against the Pharisees.

“What sorrow awaits you Pharisees! For you love to sit in the seats of honor in the synagogues and receive respectful greetings as you walk in the marketplaces.” – Luke 11:43 NLT

These so-called shepherds of Israel were fleecing the flock while they feigned a lifestyle of super-spirituality. They had no care or concern for the people of God. Instead, they used their power and position to benefit and promote themselves. This led Jesus to warn, “Because of this, they will be severely punished” (Luke 20:47 NLT). These men, who believed themselves to be the highest authority in the land, would one day stand before the One who wields ultimate authority over all the universe. They will have to answer to God. And, at that time, they will also have to explain their refusal to acknowledge and accept Jesus as the Son of God. While they stand opposed to Jesus now, there will come a day when they will bow before Him and confess, “Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father” (Philippians 2:11 ESV).

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

Cheers and Jeers

28 And when he had said these things, he went on ahead, going up to Jerusalem. 29 When he drew near to Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount that is called Olivet, he sent two of the disciples, 30 saying, “Go into the village in front of you, where on entering you will find a colt tied, on which no one has ever yet sat. Untie it and bring it here. 31 If anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ you shall say this: ‘The Lord has need of it.’” 32 So those who were sent went away and found it just as he had told them. 33 And as they were untying the colt, its owners said to them, “Why are you untying the colt?” 34 And they said, “The Lord has need of it.” 35 And they brought it to Jesus, and throwing their cloaks on the colt, they set Jesus on it. 36 And as he rode along, they spread their cloaks on the road. 37 As he was drawing near—already on the way down the Mount of Olives—the whole multitude of his disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works that they had seen, 38 saying, “Blessed is the King who comes in the name of the Lord! Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!” 39 And some of the Pharisees in the crowd said to him, “Teacher, rebuke your disciples.” 40 He answered, “I tell you, if these were silent, the very stones would cry out.” – Luke 19:28-40 ESV

As Jesus departed Jericho, He continued His journey to the city of Jerusalem. The King was preparing to enter the royal City of David, just as the disciples had hoped He would do. Despite all Jesus’ warnings about the fate that awaited Him in the capital city, His disciples were still expecting Him to fulfill what they believed to be His messianic role. According to their understanding of the Hebrew Scriptures, Jesus was destined to inherit the throne of His forefather, King David. The prophets had foretold of a day when the Anointed One would come who would usher in a new age marked by Israel’s return to power and dominance. So, for the 12 disciples, this was an exciting time filled with eager anticipation. Jesus’ dire warnings concerning His arrest, trials, and execution were far from their minds.

But Jesus was well aware of all that awaited Him in Jerusalem, and His emotions must have been conflicted as He considered all that was taking place around Him. He could sense the excitement of His disciples as they drew closer to the city. There was a festive mood on the roads and in the villages surrounding Jerusalem because of all the pilgrims who were making their way to the city in order to celebrate Passover. Joy filled the air as Jews from all over Israel made the annual pilgrimage to Jerusalem for this much-revered holy week.

But all the excitement was tempered by an underlying sense of doom. For Jesus this trip had a two-fold purpose: He would celebrate the Feast of Passover with His disciples one last time and He would present Himself as the sacrificial Lamb for the sins of mankind. It would be a time marked by joy and great sadness. There would be feasting and suffering, celebration and sacrifice, and cries of “Hosanna!” and “crucify Him!”

And while there were those anxious to see if Jesus would make an appearance, others were on the lookout for the Rabbi from Nazareth for much more clandestine reasons.

Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand, and many went up from the country to Jerusalem before the Passover to purify themselves. They were looking for Jesus and saying to one another as they stood in the temple, “What do you think? That he will not come to the feast at all?” Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given orders that if anyone knew where he was, he should let them know, so that they might arrest him. – John 11:55-57 ESV

Not long before Jesus began His trip to Jerusalem, He had performed yet another miracle in the city of Bethany, just two miles from Jerusalem. It was there that He had raised Lazarus from the dead. And that particular miracle had created quite a stir among the people, causing many to believe in Him. But the religious leaders remained vehemently opposed to Jesus. They saw Him not as a Messiah to be worshiped, but as a radical to be exterminated. The apostle John attempts to explain the growing hatred these men held for Jesus.

Many of the Jews therefore, who had come with Mary and had seen what he did, believed in him, but some of them went to the Pharisees and told them what Jesus had done. So the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered the council and said, “What are we to do? For this man performs many signs. If we let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation.” But one of them, Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, said to them, “You know nothing at all. Nor do you understand that it is better for you that one man should die for the people, not that the whole nation should perish.” He did not say this of his own accord, but being high priest that year he prophesied that Jesus would die for the nation, and not for the nation only, but also to gather into one the children of God who are scattered abroad. So from that day on they made plans to put him to death. – John 11:45-53 ESV

We know from John’s gospel account that just six days before Jesus entered Jerusalem, He had returned to Bethany, where He shared a meal with Mary, Martha, and Lazarus, the man He had raised from the dead. Ever since his miraculous restoration, Lazarus had become a celebrity. John tells us that “When the large crowd of the Jews learned that Jesus was there, they came, not only on account of him but also to see Lazarus, whom he had raised from the dead” (John 12:9 ESV). But while Lazarus had become famous among the people, he had become infamous to the religious leaders. 

So the chief priests made plans to put Lazarus to death as well, because on account of him many of the Jews were going away and believing in Jesus. – John 12:10-11 ESV

So, Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem was filled with mixed emotions. There were cheering crowds who welcome Him as they would a king. And His 12 disciples were most likely elated at the reaction of the crowds. It would have been a good omen to them. Maybe this would be the day when Jesus declared Himself king of Israel. Perhaps Jesus would see the positive response of the people and give up all His talk about being mocked, flogged, and crucified.

But while the throng of people crowding the streets contained many who believed in Jesus, it seems that their belief was limited in scope. Yes, they cried out, “Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!” But when asked about the identity of Jesus, they simply responded, “This is the prophet Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee.

They had high hopes. In their hearts, they wanted to believe that Jesus was the long-awaited Messiah, but they could not bring themselves to buy into His identity as the Son of God. In their minds, He was Jesus from Nazareth, most likely a prophet sent by God, and a man who possessed indisputable, supernatural powers. And the fervor of these “believers” was contagious, causing others to get caught up in the excitement of the moment. But the religious leaders remained filled with contempt and were anxious to capture Jesus before His presence and popularity stirred up any more trouble.

And it’s interesting to note that Jesus did not enter the city silently and clandestinely. He most certainly knew what the Pharisees and scribes were up to. He had already predicted His own betrayal and arrest. So, why did He choose to enter in such a blatantly conspicuous way? Jesus was providing His disciples with proof of His Messianic role by fulfilling the Old Testament prophecies concerning the coming king of Israel. Every one of the instructions He gave His disciples was intended to reveal and confirm His true identity to them. Even His request that they retrieve a donkey and its colt was evidence that He was the Messiah. It fulfilled the words of the prophet, Zechariah, recorded hundreds of years earlier.

Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion!
    Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem!
Behold, your king is coming to you;
    righteous and having salvation is he,
humble and mounted on a donkey,
    on a colt, the foal of a donkey. – Zecharaiah 9:9 ESV

Everything that happened from this point forward was proof that Jesus was the Messiah, the one whom God had promised would come. And the people, either knowingly or ignorantly, confirmed His identity, when they shouted, “Blessed is the King who comes in the name of the Lord! Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!” (Luke 19:38 ESV). Both Mark and Matthew record that the crowds added the triumphant word, “Hosanna.” 

“Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!” – Matthew 21:9 ESV

“Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David! Hosanna in the highest!” – Mark 11:9-10 ESV

The word “hosanna” literally means “save us now.” Their designation of Jesus as the Son of David was a Messianic title. They were declaring Jesus to be the long-awaited Messiah and King of Israel. But did they really believe what they were saying? Were their cheers and words of declaration the result of true belief or wishful thinking?

Luke records that the Pharisees demanded that Jesus rebuke the crowds for what they were saying, but Jesus simply responded, “I tell you, if these were silent, the very stones would cry out” (Luke 11:40 ESV). This was a God-ordained event, designed to give further proof that Jesus was who He had claimed to be.

God was using the crowds to declare the glory of His Son. And, as Jesus stated, God could have chosen inanimate rocks to do the job instead. The glorification of His Son had begun and nothing was going to prevent that from happening. Yet, as Matthew records in his gospel account, the majority of the people who placed palm branches before Jesus and declared Him to be the Son of David would later cry out for His crucifixion.

Emotions were running high that day in Jerusalem. Matthew tells us that the city was “stirred up” because of Jesus. The Greek word he used is seiō, and it means “to be agitated, shaken, or rocked.” The arrival of Jesus was like an earthquake, shaking the entire city to its core. And, as we will see, Jesus was not done yet. This was not going to be a quiet or covert period of His life. Things were building up to a dramatic climax. The tension was mounting. His entire earthly ministry had been pointing to this moment, and the spiritual battle that began with His temptation in the wilderness three years earlier was coming to a final, decisive conclusion.

The event recorded in this passage is often referred to as the “Triumphal Entry.” And while His entry into Jerusalem was accompanied by cheering crowds and outward signs of acceptance and adulation, there was something sinister going on behind the scenes. The adoring multitude with their smiling faces would soon dissipate and disperse. The warm welcome would not last because a battle of epic proportions was about to take place. This entire scene serves as the preface for a spiritual confrontation that will rock the world. The Son of God is about to go to war “against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places” (Ephesians 6:12 ESV).

From the moment Jesus took on human flesh and came in the form of an innocent baby, Satan had been trying to eliminate this threat to his earthly dominion and rule. All the spiritual forces of evil were aligning themselves against Jesus, in one final attempt to thwart the will of God. But Jesus’ battle with Satan would not involve demons and angels wielding swords and spears. It would entail Jesus sacrificing His life as payment for the sins of mankind. He would defeat the enemy by offering Himself as the atoning sacrifice for the Satan-inspired rebellion against God. His death would be viewed as a defeat by His disappointed disciples. But the King would prove to be victorious over sin and death when He was raised back to life.

None of this was apparent to the disciples as they fetched the donkey and reveled in the shouts of the crowd. They were oblivious to what was about to happen. But in time, they would see the battle lines being drawn and the forces of evil aligning themselves against Jesus. It was the calm before the storm.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

Lord of the Sabbath

1 On a Sabbath, while he was going through the grainfields, his disciples plucked and ate some heads of grain, rubbing them in their hands. But some of the Pharisees said, “Why are you doing what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath?” And Jesus answered them, “Have you not read what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him: how he entered the house of God and took and ate the bread of the Presence, which is not lawful for any but the priests to eat, and also gave it to those with him?” And he said to them, “The Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath.”

On another Sabbath, he entered the synagogue and was teaching, and a man was there whose right hand was withered. And the scribes and the Pharisees watched him, to see whether he would heal on the Sabbath, so that they might find a reason to accuse him. But he knew their thoughts, and he said to the man with the withered hand, “Come and stand here.” And he rose and stood there. And Jesus said to them, “I ask you, is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good or to do harm, to save life or to destroy it?” 10 And after looking around at them all he said to him, “Stretch out your hand.” And he did so, and his hand was restored. 11 But they were filled with fury and discussed with one another what they might do to Jesus. Luke 6:1-11 ESV

Repressive and restrictive rules and regulations had become the mainstay of the prevailing religious system of the Jews, and its gatekeepers were the scribes and Pharisees who were closely evaluating the actions of Jesus. To these men, Jesus was a loose cannon, a renegade Rabbi from the small town of Nazareth who was teaching heresy and guilty of blasphemy. They couldn’t deny the fact that Jesus was a miracle worker but they were slowly gathering evidence that would prove His blatant disregard for their laws and His unacceptable association with moral reprobates and social outcasts. In their minds, Jesus was a troublemaker who refused to follow the rules and was leading the common people astray with His blasphemous offers of forgiveness for sins and the tantalizing promise of a coming kingdom.

The religious leaders had already confronted Jesus about His choice of dinner companions.

“Why do you eat and drink with tax collectors and sinners?” – Luke 5:30 ESV

They deemed Jesus as a poor judge of character. He willingly associated with the dregs of society, the very sinners who the religious leaders believed were preventing Israel from experiencing the full blessings of God. And His disciples were no better. These men were, for the most part, nothing but uneducated Galilean fishermen who were gluttonous and ignorant of the laws concerning prayer and fasting. And they had been more than willing to point out this apparent flaw in Jesus’ followers.

“The disciples of John fast often and offer prayers, and so do the disciples of the Pharisees, but yours eat and drink.” – Luke 5:33 ESV

But what these men failed to realize was that Jesus, as the Son of God, was not subject to their manmade laws and decrees. As the Creator-God, He had authority over all things. The apostle John described the basis for Jesus’ exemption from the Pharisees’ repressive rules.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. – John 1:1-3 ESV

And the apostle Paul would go on to explain the overarching nature of Jesus’ divine authority over everyone and everything.

He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him. And he is before all things, and in him all things hold together. – Colossians 1:15-17 ESV

But as Jesus walked the earth, He appeared to these religious leaders as nothing more than a man who was violating their precious precepts and encouraging the uneducated peasants to do the same. He was threatening their way of life by diminishing their control over the people. Without rules, society would devolve into anarchy and chaos. These men had made a god out of the Mosaic Law. The righteous rules and regulations prescribed by God and handed down by Moses had become more important than the Law-Giver. Their strict adherence to the law had replaced their affection for God. And Jesus would later declare these very same men to be nothing more than pious-looking pretenders whose religious zeal was misplaced and whose love for God had been replaced by their lust for power and control.

“You hypocrites! Isaiah was right when he prophesied about you, for he wrote, ‘These people honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. Their worship is a farce, for they teach man-made ideas as commands from God.’” – Matthew 15:7-9 NLT

At the heart of their monolithic legal system was the Sabbath and the seemingly endless list of rules they had developed to regulate its observance. So, it was not long before Jesus found Himself at odds with the religious leaders over His lack of protocol concerning this holy day. Luke records that Jesus and His disciples were making their way through a field of grain on the Sabbath. As they did so, “his disciples plucked and ate some heads of grain, rubbing them in their hands” (Luke 6:1 ESV). According to Deuteronomy 23:25, the Mosaic Law provided a waiver that allowed anyone to pluck grain by hand.

If you go into your neighbor’s standing grain, you may pluck the ears with your hand… – Deuteronomy 23:25 ESV

But as Luke reveals, the disciples were being watched by the Pharisees, who immediately deemed their actions as a violation of their laws concerning the Sabbath. According to their strict interpretation of the Mosaic Law, the disciples were guilty of harvesting, reaping, and meal preparation, which were all prohibited on the Sabbath. With legalistic zeal, they immediately confronted Jesus and His disciples, pointing out their seeming disregard for the Law.

“Why are you doing what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath?” – Luke 6:3 ESV

Rather than explain the actions of His disciples, Jesus took these men to the Scriptures. He reminded them of a story involving the great king, David. The book of 1st Samuel records an incident in which David ate bread that had been dedicated to the Lord. David was the anointed king of Israel, but he and his men were on the run from the current occupant of the throne: King Saul. When they arrived at Nob, David convinced the priest to give his men the bread of the Presence, holy bread that was unlawful for them to eat. In doing so, David violated the ceremonial law but because he was the Lord’s anointed, his actions did not violate God’s moral law. Human need took precedence over the ceremonial law. Jesus would later use this same logic to justify His healing of a man on the Sabbath. He would ask the Pharisees, “Which of you doesn’t work on the Sabbath? If your son or your cow falls into a pit, don’t you rush to get him out?” (Luke 14:5 NLT).

The Pharisees refused to answer Jesus’ question because to do so would have shot a hole in the logic behind their entire legal system. They cared more for their rules than they did for the people for whom they were responsible to God. And Jesus was not about to follow their lead.

According to Jesus, what David did was acceptable to God and, therefore, the behavior of His disciples was as well. Then He added a statement that must have left the Pharisees apoplectic with rage.

“The Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath.” – Luke 6:5 ESV

Jesus was clearly stating His divinity and authority. He was declaring His divine right to authorize the behavior of His disciples –even if it violated the Sabbath law – which it did not. As God, Jesus was the author of the Law, and He had not come to abolish or violate the Law, but to fulfill it (Matthew 5:17).

Luke follows up this story with a second occasion in which the Pharisees confront Jesus for His violation of Sabbath law. This time it involves Jesus’ decision to heal on the Sabbath, thereby doing “work” and willingly breaking the law. Luke makes it clear that this event took place on the Sabbath and in the local synagogue. And Jesus was fully aware that the entire scene was a setup, knowing that the Pharisees were waiting “to see whether he would heal on the Sabbath, so that they might find a reason to accuse him” (Luke 6:7 ESV). And He did not disappoint them. Jesus purposefully called forward a man who had a withered hand and had him stand in front of the congregation gathered in the synagogue. In a sense, this man became a prop in Jesus’ lesson on the Sabbath law. With the man standing in front of Him, Jesus directed a question at the Pharisees and scribes:

“I ask you, is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good or to do harm, to save life or to destroy it?” – Luke 6:9 ESV

There was no response. The religious leaders knew that they were caught between a rock and a hard place. If they said it was unlawful to do good on the Sabbath, they would come across as uncaring and unloving. If they answered in the affirmative, they would be validating the behavior of Jesus. So, they remained silent.

Luke records that Jesus looked at each of them, waiting for a response. This delay must have felt like an eternity to these men, as all eyes in the synagogue were fixed on them. But Jesus finally broke the silence by turning His attention to the man with the withered hand and stating, “Stretch out your hand” (Luke 6:10 ESV). And as soon as the man complied, his hand was immediately and miraculously restored.

But rather than responding with awe and amazement at Jesus’ supernatural display of power, the religious leaders became incensed. Luke reports that they “were filled with fury and discussed with one another what they might do to Jesus” (Luke 6:11 ESV). They had just witnessed living proof that Jesus was indeed Lord of the Sabbath, but they were furious because Jesus had made them look like fools. He had made a mockery of their ceremonial laws and further enhanced His reputation among the people – and all at their expense.

Jesus had displayed His power and authority over disease, demons, and even the Sabbath. But the religious leaders were convinced that He was a menace to society who showed them no respect and had no regard for their sacred traditions. By the time they made their way back to Jerusalem with the latest reports of Jesus’ exploits, their superiors would have already made their decision to eliminate this growing threat to the nation.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

Return to the Lord

1 Return, O Israel, to the Lord your God,
    for you have stumbled because of your iniquity.
Take with you words
    and return to the Lord;
say to him,
    “Take away all iniquity;
accept what is good,
    and we will pay with bulls
    the vows of our lips.
Assyria shall not save us;
    we will not ride on horses;
and we will say no more, ‘Our God,’
    to the work of our hands.
In you the orphan finds mercy.”

I will heal their apostasy;
    I will love them freely,
    for my anger has turned from them.
I will be like the dew to Israel;
    he shall blossom like the lily;
    he shall take root like the trees of Lebanon;
his shoots shall spread out;
    his beauty shall be like the olive,
    and his fragrance like Lebanon.
They shall return and dwell beneath my shadow;
    they shall flourish like the grain;
they shall blossom like the vine;
    their fame shall be like the wine of Lebanon.

O Ephraim, what have I to do with idols?
    It is I who answer and look after you.
I am like an evergreen cypress;
    from me comes your fruit.

Whoever is wise, let him understand these things;
    whoever is discerning, let him know them;
for the ways of the Lord are right,
    and the upright walk in them,
    but transgressors stumble in them. – Hosea 14:1-9 ESV

Despite all the chapters dealing with Israel’s apostasy and God’s pending judgment, the book of Hosea ends on a highly positive note. In the closing chapter, Hosea makes one more impassioned plea for the rebellious people of Israel to return to the Lord. He lovingly implores them to leave their sins behind and make their way back to God. Hosea reminds them that they can only find healing and forgiveness with Yahweh. Their idols are useless and incapable of providing them with the help they need. But they will need to confess their sins and offer heart-felt sacrifices to the one true God. If they do, they will receive atonement and a restored relationship with the one who lovingly set them apart as His own chosen possession.

In an effort to encourage a positive response to his call to repentance, Hosea even provides them with the words to say.

“Forgive all our sins and graciously receive us,
    so that we may offer you our praises.
Assyria cannot save us,
    nor can our warhorses.
Never again will we say to the idols we have made,
    ‘You are our gods.’
No, in you alone
    do the orphans find mercy.” – Hosea 14:2-3 NLT

He practically wrote their confession for them, so all they had to do was speak the words.  But it would all mean nothing if their hearts were not in it. God was not interested in lip service. Pious-sounding words that were not back up by sincerity of heart were worthless to Him, and He had condemned such hypocritical behavior before.

“These people draw near to Me with their mouths and honor Me with their lips, but their hearts are far from Me. Their worship of Me is but rules taught by men.” – Isaiah 29:13 BSB

God also gave a somewhat discouraging assessment to His prophet, Ezekiel, warning him that the people would listen to his words but with no intention of doing what he said.

“Son of man, your people talk about you in their houses and whisper about you at the doors. They say to each other, ‘Come on, let’s go hear the prophet tell us what the Lord is saying!’ So my people come pretending to be sincere and sit before you. They listen to your words, but they have no intention of doing what you say. Their mouths are full of lustful words, and their hearts seek only after money. You are very entertaining to them, like someone who sings love songs with a beautiful voice or plays fine music on an instrument. They hear what you say, but they don’t act on it!” – Ezekiel 33:30-32 NLT

King David had understood that what God wanted from His sinful people was not ritualistic sacrifices offered in some kind of perfunctory fashion. He desired that His people offer Him their broken and repentant hearts, not empty sacrifices that were in keeping with the letter of the law but lacking in sincerity and truth.

“You do not desire a sacrifice, or I would offer one.
    You do not want a burnt offering.
The sacrifice you desire is a broken spirit.
    You will not reject a broken and repentant heart, O God.” – Psalm 51:16-17 NLT

Hosea wants the people of Israel to know that only meaningful repentance will result in restoration. He even quotes God’s promise to restore His repentant people.

“Then I will heal you of your faithlessness;
    my love will know no bounds,
    for my anger will be gone forever. – Hosea 14:4 NLT

Amazingly, God offers His people the undeserved gift of His forgiveness, mercy, and grace. He is still willing to show them compassion. He is still prepared to shower them with His blessings – despite all the centuries marked by rebellion, unfaithfulness, and disobedience to His holy law. All the way back when Solomon was still king over the unified kingdom of Israel, God had made him a promise. It was at the dedication of the newly constructed temple that Solomon had constructed in God’s honor. After Solomon’s prayer of dedication, God made a pledge that He would honor the new temple with His name and listen to the prayers that His people prayed toward this sacred site.

“…if My people who are called by My name humble themselves and pray and seek My face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, forgive their sin, and heal their land.” – 2 Chronicles 7:14 BSB

That promise was still valid, because God always keeps His word.

God is not a man, so he does not lie. He is not human, so he does not change his mind. Has he ever spoken and failed to act? Has he ever promised and not carried it through? – Numbers 23:19 NLT

God is a covenant-keeping God. He does not renege or go back on His promises. And in the book of psalms, we read on His covenant commitment to David.

“I will establish your descendants as kings forever;
    they will sit on your throne from now until eternity.” – Psalm 89:4 NLT

God loved David greatly and called him a man after His own heart. And He promised to give David a long-lasting, never-ending dynasty. But at the time when Hosea was writing the book that bears his name, the prospects of this promise being fulfilled looked bleak. The kingdom that David had turned over to his son Solomon had been divided in two. And the day was quickly coming when there would no longer be a king over Israel or Judah. Both nations would be defeated by foreign powers and watch as their kings were dethroned and their kingdoms destroyed. To this day, there has been no king to rule over the people of Israel. Yet God had promised David:

“I will make him my firstborn son,
    the mightiest king on earth.
I will love him and be kind to him forever;
    my covenant with him will never end.
I will preserve an heir for him;
    his throne will be as endless as the days of heaven.” – Psalm 89:27-29 NLT

But there was a caveat that came with the promise. God had also warned what would happen in the people of Israel failed to be obedient. There would be consequences.

“But if his descendants forsake my instructions
    and fail to obey my regulations,
if they do not obey my decrees
    and fail to keep my commands,
then I will punish their sin with the rod,
    and their disobedience with beating.
But I will never stop loving him
    nor fail to keep my promise to him.
No, I will not break my covenant;
    I will not take back a single word I said.” – Psalm 89:30-34 NLT

They would suffer for their sins but God would not alter one letter of His covenant commitment to David. He would never stop loving him. He would never fail to keep the promises He made to him. And the descendants of David would stand to benefit greatly from God’s faithful commitment to keep His word.

“I will be to Israel
    like a refreshing dew from heaven.
Israel will blossom like the lily;
    it will send roots deep into the soil
    like the cedars in Lebanon.” – Hosea 14:5 NLT

Using highly poetic language, God describes a remarkable change in Israel’s future circumstances.

“My people will again live under my shade.
    They will flourish like grain and blossom like grapevines.” – Hosea 14:7 NLT

Just as they are assured the inevitability of their coming destruction, they are also promised their future restoration and revitalization by the gracious hand of God.

But in the meantime, God pleads with His people to “stay away from idols!” (Hosea 14:8 NLT). He longs to be their sole source of comfort and the only one to whom they turn for help, hope, and healing.

I am the one who answers your prayers and cares for you.
I am like a tree that is always green;
    all your fruit comes from me.” – Hosea 14:8 NLT

Their false gods will fail them. But not Yahweh. Lifeless idols cannot hear or answer their prayers. But God can and will – if they will only call out to Him in humility and brokenness. And Hosea wraps up his book with one final plea for the people to act wisely and respond to the Lord with discernment. They must choose.

The paths of the Lord are true and right,
    and righteous people live by walking in them.
    But in those paths sinners stumble and fall. – Hosea 14:9 NLT

This was essentially the same message that the prophet, Jeremiah, pronounced. He too recorded God’s call for His people to make the right choice and to walk the right path. But sadly, they refused to listen.

This is what the Lord says:
“Stop at the crossroads and look around.
    Ask for the old, godly way, and walk in it.
Travel its path, and you will find rest for your souls.
    But you reply, ‘No, that’s not the road we want!’
I posted watchmen over you who said,
    ‘Listen for the sound of the alarm.’
But you replied,
    ‘No! We won’t pay attention!’” – Jeremiah 6:16-17 NLT

Choose the right path. Heed the warnings of God. Display a heart of contrition. Repent and return to the Lord. And He will graciously offer you forgiveness, atonement, and the joy of a restored relationship with Himself.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preserving and Protecting the Line of David

13 When Athaliah heard the noise of the guard and of the people, she went into the house of the Lord to the people. 14 And when she looked, there was the king standing by the pillar, according to the custom, and the captains and the trumpeters beside the king, and all the people of the land rejoicing and blowing trumpets. And Athaliah tore her clothes and cried, “Treason! Treason!” 15 Then Jehoiada the priest commanded the captains who were set over the army, “Bring her out between the ranks, and put to death with the sword anyone who follows her.” For the priest said, “Let her not be put to death in the house of the Lord.” 16 So they laid hands on her; and she went through the horses’ entrance to the king’s house, and there she was put to death.

17 And Jehoiada made a covenant between the Lord and the king and people, that they should be the Lord’s people, and also between the king and the people. 18 Then all the people of the land went to the house of Baal and tore it down; his altars and his images they broke in pieces, and they killed Mattan the priest of Baal before the altars. And the priest posted watchmen over the house of the Lord. 19 And he took the captains, the Carites, the guards, and all the people of the land, and they brought the king down from the house of the Lord, marching through the gate of the guards to the king’s house. And he took his seat on the throne of the kings. 20 So all the people of the land rejoiced, and the city was quiet after Athaliah had been put to death with the sword at the king’s house.

21 Jehoash was seven years old when he began to reign. 2 Kings 11:13-21 ESV

For six years, Joash, the young heir to David’s throne, had lived in the temple of Yahweh – and right under Athaliah’s nose. The house of God proved to be the perfect hiding place for the young boy because it would have been the last place Athaliah would have ever looked. Like her parents, Ahab and Jezebel, she was a committed Baal worshiper. So, any chance of her running into Joash at the house of God would have been highly unlikely. In this story, the temple of the one true God plays a significant role. It is a reminder that, in Judah, Yahweh still played a major role in the lives of the people. While some of the kings of Judah had successfully introduced the worship of idols, the people had not abandoned Yahweh. The temple Solomon had built still stood, and the sacrificial system remained in place. Jehoiada and his fellow priests faithfully maintained God’s house and looked after the spiritual well-being of God’s people. And now, Jehoiada had provided sanctuary for God’s chosen king in the house that bore God’s name. And it must not be overlooked that the temple of God had direct ties all the way back to King David.

It had always been David’s dream to build a great temple in honor of Yahweh. But God informed David that He had other plans.

“And I will give you rest from all your enemies. Moreover, the Lord declares to you that the Lord will make you a house. When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.” – 2 Samuel 7:11-13 ESV

God went on to promise David, “your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before me. Your throne shall be established forever” (2 Samuel 7:16 ESV). God was going to build David’s house or dynasty.  But it would be David’s son, Solomon, whom God would give the privilege of constructing a house that would bear His name and in which His glory would dwell. And now, the house built by Solomon had become the means by which God fulfilled His promise to preserve the house of David. Joash, the descendant of David and the rightful heir to the throne of Judah, was alive because he had been given sanctuary and protection in the house of God.

When word got out that Joash was alive and that he had been crowned the king of Judah, the crowds flocked to the temple to see if the news was true. And it wasn’t long before Athaliah was told about the great commotion taking place at the temple of Yahweh. So, she went to see for herself.

Much to her shock and surprise, there stood her seven-year-old grandson, Joash, very much alive and well, and wearing a crown on his head. In a matter of seconds, Athaliah’s house of cards began to crumble. Her insidious plan to eradicate all the heirs to her son’s throne had failed. For six years she had lived under the delusion that she had successfully secured her place as the queen of Judah. But little did she know that God had been protecting and preserving the seed of David until he was ready to take the throne. And it must not be overlooked that when Jehoiada placed the crown on the head of Joash, he had also presented the young king with a copy of the Mosaic Law.

Jehoiada brought out Joash, the king’s son, placed the crown on his head, and presented him with a copy of God’s laws. – 2 Kings 11:12 NLT

This practice was in keeping with the commands of God concerning the kings of Israel.

“When he sits on the throne as king, he must copy for himself this body of instruction on a scroll in the presence of the Levitical priests. He must always keep that copy with him and read it daily as long as he lives. That way he will learn to fear the Lord his God by obeying all the terms of these instructions and decrees. This regular reading will prevent him from becoming proud and acting as if he is above his fellow citizens. It will also prevent him from turning away from these commands in the smallest way. And it will ensure that he and his descendants will reign for many generations in Israel.” – Deuteronomy 17:18-20 NLT

Athaliah, an ungodly and unauthorized queen, was standing before the God-appointed king of Judah. And this young man was backed by the law of God, the priests of God, and had the full support of the people of God. But declared the entire scene to be nothing less than an act of treason. She refused to acknowledge Joash as the rightful heir to the throne because she refused to acknowledge Yahweh as the one and only God of Judah.

But her claims of treason were met with an order from Jehoiada the priest, commanding that she be taken from the temple and executed. She was the one who had been guilty of treason and so, she was the one who deserved to die.

With her death, a spirit of revival broke out in the land of Judah. Jehoiada immediately “made a covenant between the Lord and the king and the people that they would be the Lord’s people” (2 Kings 11:17 NLT). In a sense, he called the people to repent and return to the worship of Yahweh. They had a new king but Jehoiada knew that it would mean nothing without a renewed commitment to God. Joash was just a seven-year-old boy with no leadership skills or experience. But if he and the people under his care would recommit themselves to the Word and the will of God, they would find themselves enjoying the blessings of God once again.

In a decisive demonstration of their renewed zeal for Yahweh, the people tore down the temple of Baal. Its very presence indicates that Athaliah and her ungodly relatives in Israel had played a major role in the declining spiritual state within Judah. The city of Jerusalem, home to the temple of God, also had a temple dedicated to Baal, the false god of Ahab and Jezebel. But in the revival-like atmosphere that accompanied Joash’s crowning, the people were moved to eradicate every last vestige of Baal worship from their midst.

They demolished the altars and smashed the idols to pieces, and they killed Mattan the priest of Baal in front of the altars. – 2 Kings 11:18 NLT

With Athaliah and her false god out of the way, it was time for Joash to move from God’s house to David’s palace. So, Jehoiada led a processional from the temple to the royal residence, where “the king took his seat on the royal throne” (2 Kings 11:19 NLT). And at that moment, God reaffirmed the promise He had made to David.

Your house and your kingdom will continue before me for all time, and your throne will be secure forever. – 2 Samuel 7:16 NLT

God was committed to keeping His word because He had a far greater plan in store that would involve the line of David. His preservation of David’s house was crucial because there was to be one final descendant of David who would rule and reign, not just over Judah and Israel, but over all the kingdoms of the world. The prophet Isaiah spoke of this coming King and the day when He will bring salvation to the world.

In that day the heir to David’s throne
    will be a banner of salvation to all the world.
The nations will rally to him,
    and the land where he lives will be a glorious place. – Isaiah 11:10 NLT

Joash had been protected so that David’s line could be preserved. Despite the unfaithfulness of His people, God was faithfully keeping His promise to David so that His plans for the future redemption of the world could be fulfilled in Christ.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

 

A Gift From God

1 Now when Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the royal family. But Jehosheba, the daughter of King Joram, sister of Ahaziah, took Joash the son of Ahaziah and stole him away from among the king’s sons who were being put to death, and she put him and his nurse in a bedroom. Thus they hid him from Athaliah, so that he was not put to death. And he remained with her six years, hidden in the house of the Lord, while Athaliah reigned over the land.

But in the seventh year Jehoiada sent and brought the captains of the Carites and of the guards, and had them come to him in the house of the Lord. And he made a covenant with them and put them under oath in the house of the Lord, and he showed them the king’s son. And he commanded them, “This is the thing that you shall do: one third of you, those who come off duty on the Sabbath and guard the king’s house (another third being at the gate Sur and a third at the gate behind the guards) shall guard the palace. And the two divisions of you, which come on duty in force on the Sabbath and guard the house of the Lord on behalf of the king, shall surround the king, each with his weapons in his hand. And whoever approaches the ranks is to be put to death. Be with the king when he goes out and when he comes in.”

The captains did according to all that Jehoiada the priest commanded, and they each brought his men who were to go off duty on the Sabbath, with those who were to come on duty on the Sabbath, and came to Jehoiada the priest. 10 And the priest gave to the captains the spears and shields that had been King David’s, which were in the house of the Lord. 11 And the guards stood, every man with his weapons in his hand, from the south side of the house to the north side of the house, around the altar and the house on behalf of the king. 12 Then he brought out the king’s son and put the crown on him and gave him the testimony. And they proclaimed him king and anointed him, and they clapped their hands and said, “Long live the king!” 2 Kings 11:1-12 ESV

Meanwhile, back in Judah.

Once again, the author shifts the focus of his narrative back to the southern kingdom. While Jehu had been systematically and brutally eliminating the legacy of Ahab from Israel, a regime change had taken place in Judah as well. While the two nations operated independently of one another, they had developed close ties through intermarriage and military alliances. Ahab and Jezebel had a daughter, Athaliah, who had married King Jehoram of Israel. Her influence over him is readily apparent when you read how God assessed his reign and disclosed the nature of his death.

“…you have been as evil as the kings of Israel. You have led the people of Jerusalem and Judah to worship idols, just as King Ahab did in Israel. And you have even killed your own brothers, men who were better than you. So now the Lord is about to strike you, your people, your children, your wives, and all that is yours with a heavy blow. You yourself will suffer with a severe intestinal disease that will get worse each day until your bowels come out.” – 2 Chronicles 21:13-15 NLT

And when Jehoram ending up dying just as God had predicted, he was replaced by Ahaziah, the son he shared with Athalia. During his reign, Ahaziah maintained a close relationship with his family back in Israel, even making a trip to visit his uncle, King Jehoram, who was recuperating from battle injuries at his summer palace in Jezreel. But the timing of his trip proved both ill-planned and ill-fated. He had arrived in Jezreel at the exact moment when Jehu was launching his coup against the house of Ahab. And his decision to be in Israel at that precise moment proved deadly.

When King Ahaziah of Judah saw what was happening, he fled along the road to Beth-haggan. Jehu rode after him, shouting, “Shoot him, too!” So they shot Ahaziah in his chariot at the Ascent of Gur, near Ibleam. He was able to go on as far as Megiddo, but he died there. His servants took him by chariot to Jerusalem, where they buried him with his ancestors in the City of David. – 2 Kings 9:27-28 NLT

In a single day, Jehu had managed to kill the kings of Israel and Judah, creating an immediate power vacuum in both nations. He would end up filling the void left by King Jehoram in Israel, but the battle for control of Ahaziah’s empty throne would prove more complicated and deadly.

As soon as Athalia received the news that her son had been murdered by Jehu, she launched a brutal campaign to secure the crown for herself. Rather than mourn the death of her son, “she arose and destroyed all the royal family” (2 Kings 11:1 ESV). She callously eliminated any and all competition. And thanks to her husband’s sins against Yahweh, her work had been made much easier. As punishment for Jehoram’s ungodly leadership, God had brought judgment against Judah in the form of enemy raiding parties.

Then the Lord stirred up the Philistines and the Arabs, who lived near the Ethiopians, to attack Jehoram. They marched against Judah, broke down its defenses, and carried away everything of value in the royal palace, including the king’s sons and his wives. Only his youngest son, Ahaziah, was spared. – 2 Chronicles 21:16-17 NLT

Now, with Ahaziah out of the picture, Athaliah had few competitors for the throne. But she still went out of her way to eliminate anyone who might jeopardize her plan to rule over Judah. In doing so, Athaliah was going against the revealed will of God. He had made a covenant commitment to David that one of his descendants would sit on his throne forever.

“When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.

“And your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before me. Your throne shall be established forever.” – 2 Samuel 7:12-13, 16 ESV

Athaliah was not a descendant of David, but she was not about to let that minor detail stand in her way. So, she set out to clear her path to power by systematically wiping out anyone who might claim to be the rightful heir to David’s throne. 

Having successfully eliminated the competition, Athaliah became the self-appointed queen of Judah, and she would hold that title for the next six years. But little did she know that all the while she sat on the throne, the true king of Judah was being protected in the house of God. During her ambitious and murderous power-grab, she had inadvertently overlooked one minor detail: A young boy named Joash. He was the son of King Ahaziah and, therefore, the rightful heir to the throne.

When Athaliah had begun her murderous spree, her step-daughter, Jehosheba, had risked her life by protecting Joash, the infant son of Ahaziah. The book of 2 Chronicles provides us with a detailed description of her brave rescue attempt.

Ahaziah’s sister Jehosheba, the daughter of King Jehoram, took Ahaziah’s infant son, Joash, and stole him away from among the rest of the king’s children, who were about to be killed. She put Joash and his nurse in a bedroom. In this way, Jehosheba, wife of Jehoiada the priest and sister of Ahaziah, hid the child so that Athaliah could not murder him. – 2 Chronicles 22:11 NLT

Don’t miss the sovereign hand of God in all of this. It just so happens that Jehosheba was not only the daughter of the king and, therefore, the half-sister of Joash, but she was also the wife of Jehoiada the priest. These relationships were God-ordained and providentially established to not only keep Joash alive but to preserve the promise that God had made to David years earlier. After initially hiding Joash in a room within the palace, Jehosheba and her husband, Jehoiada, moved him to the temple. And for the next six years, the young boy would find protection in the house of God. Yahweh, the God of David, was preserving the seed of David so that He might fulfill the promise He had made to David. And what makes this so significant is that God was preserving David’s seed so that He might one day send His own Son as the ultimate fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant. The psalmist writes, “The Lord swore to David a sure oath from which he will not turn back: ‘One of the sons of your body I will set on your throne’” ( Psalm 132:11 ESV). And the apostle Paul reminds us that Jesus was the Son whom God had in mind when He made that promise to David.

God promised this Good News long ago through his prophets in the holy Scriptures. The Good News is about his Son. In his earthly life he was born into King David’s family line, and he was shown to be the Son of God when he was raised from the dead by the power of the Holy Spirit. He is Jesus Christ our Lord. – Romans 1:2-4 NLT

But had Jehosheba not been there to preserve the life of her brother, the line of David would have come to an abrupt end. And had her husband not been Jehoiada the priest, the young boy would not have been given sanctuary in the temple of God. All of this was the handiwork of God Almighty, who was operating behind the scenes in order to preserve and protect His covenant promise. Nothing was going to stand in the way of God’s long-term redemptive plan for the people of Israel and the nations of the world – including Athaliah.

And in time, Athaliah’s 15-minutes of fame came to an end. When Joash reached the age of seven, Jehoiada the priest called for the captains of the Carites, who served as royal bodyguards. He brought them into the temple and introduced them to Joash, the rightful heir to the throne. This would have been shocking news to these men. None of them would have had any idea that Joash was alive. Jehoiada’s decision to use the temple as the venue for revealing this exciting news was intended to remind these men that God was at work. He had them swear an oath before God that they would protect the new king at all costs, and they agreed. Then, as if to solidify their commitment, he equipped these men with “spears and shields that had been King David’s, which were in the house of the Lord” ( 2 Kings 11:10 ESV). This was intended as a not-so-subtle reminder that Joash was a descendant of the great king, David, and the rightful heir to the throne of Judah.

Having instigated plans to provide protection for Joash, Jehoiada took the next steps to make inaugurate the new king of Judah.

Then he brought out the king’s son and put the crown on him and gave him the testimony. And they proclaimed him king and anointed him, and they clapped their hands and said, “Long live the king!” – 2 Kings 11:12 ESV

After six years under the reign of Athaliah, the fate of Judah was about to take a dramatic turn. From the holy temple of God, a cry would go out, declaring that Judah had a new king. The sovereign plan of God was alive and well, and it was about to be revealed in the life of a seven-year-old boy named Joash. And it’s interesting to note that Joash’s name means, “given by the Lord.” He would be a gracious gift from God Almighty, providing immediate hope for the people of Judah and a link to the future promise of the Messiah.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

 

No Match For Yahweh

16 In the fifth year of Joram the son of Ahab, king of Israel, when Jehoshaphat was king of Judah, Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, began to reign. 17 He was thirty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem. 18 And he walked in the way of the kings of Israel, as the house of Ahab had done, for the daughter of Ahab was his wife. And he did what was evil in the sight of the Lord. 19 Yet the Lord was not willing to destroy Judah, for the sake of David his servant, since he promised to give a lamp to him and to his sons forever.

20 In his days Edom revolted from the rule of Judah and set up a king of their own. 21 Then Joram passed over to Zair with all his chariots and rose by night, and he and his chariot commanders struck the Edomites who had surrounded him, but his army fled home. 22 So Edom revolted from the rule of Judah to this day. Then Libnah revolted at the same time. 23 Now the rest of the acts of Joram, and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah? 24 So Joram slept with his fathers and was buried with his fathers in the city of David, and Ahaziah his son reigned in his place.

25 In the twelfth year of Joram the son of Ahab, king of Israel, Ahaziah the son of Jehoram, king of Judah, began to reign. 26 Ahaziah was twenty-two years old when he began to reign, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Athaliah; she was a granddaughter of Omri king of Israel. 27 He also walked in the way of the house of Ahab and did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, as the house of Ahab had done, for he was son-in-law to the house of Ahab.

28 He went with Joram the son of Ahab to make war against Hazael king of Syria at Ramoth-gilead, and the Syrians wounded Joram. 29 And King Joram returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds that the Syrians had given him at Ramah, when he fought against Hazael king of Syria. And Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Joram the son of Ahab in Jezreel, because he was sick. 2 Kings 8:16-29 ESV

At this point in the narrative, the author provides a brief summary of the dynastic legacies of the two divided kingdoms. While much of his time has been spent dealing with the interactions between the two prophets of God and the kings of Israel, he now gives an overview of the most recent lines of succession in both kingdoms.

Due to the extended emphasis he has given to the northern kingdom of Israel, the author seems compelled to step back and revisit the somewhat complex and overlapping nature of the two kingly lines. It was back in 1 Kings 15 that we were first introduced to Jehoshaphat, the king of Judah. He had succeeded his father Asa to the throne. But from 1 Kings 16 to 2 Kings 8, the vast majority of the content focuses on Israel, detailing King Ahab’s rise to power, his wicked reign, and the long line of kings who followed in his footsteps. But the author wants his readers to know that things had not fared any better in the southern kingdom. While Jehoram was ruling in Israel, a young man with the very same name was reigning in Judah. He was the son of Jehoshaphat and he served for five years as his father’s coregent. He would reign an additional eight years once the crown was his alone. But his reign would be marked by apostasy just like the kings of Israel.

Jehoram followed the example of the kings of Israel and was as wicked as King Ahab, for he had married one of Ahab’s daughters. So Jehoram did what was evil in the Lord’s sight. – 2 Kings 8:18 NLT

Jehoram had married into the ungodly and wicked family of King Ahab, taking as his wife, Athaliah, a young woman who would prove to be just as evil as her mother, Jezebel. In fact, 2 Kings 11 will chronicle how she rose to power, crowning herself the queen of Judah after having slaughtered all her sons who were legitimate heirs to the throne.

This woman had an obvious influence over Jehoram. His less-than-stellar choice of a marriage partner proved to be a contributing factor in the downward spiral of his reign. Yet, the author reminds his readers that there was a greater power at work behind the scenes. Despite Jehoram’s wickedness and stubborn refusal to honor the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Yahweh was keeping the promise He had made to King David.

Yet the Lord was not willing to destroy Judah, for the sake of David his servant, since he promised to give a lamp to him and to his sons forever. – 2 Kings 8:19 ESV

God was faithfully preserving the line of David, but not because they deserved it. It was because He had a much longer-term plan in place that He was going to fulfill. That is what He had told David long before Solomon ascended to the throne after him.

“When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men, but my steadfast love will not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away from before you. And your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before me. Your throne shall be established forever.” – 2 Samuel 7:12-16 ESV

This promise was partially fulfilled in Solomon. He would go on to build the temple of God in Jerusalem. But while was blessed by God with great wisdom and wealth, he would prove to be unfaithful in his later years, succumbing to the influence of his many pagan wives and their false gods. It would be because of his apostasy that God eventually split his kingdom in two, creating the northern kingdom of Israel and leaving Solomon’s son, Rehoboam, the southern kingdom of Judah.

With each successive king of Judah, the problem seemed to worsen. Now Jehoram was king over and his apostasy deserved God’s divine judgment. But rather than destroy Jehoram, God graciously disciplined him by causing the neighboring nations of Edom and Libnah to revolt. His entire reign was marked by warfare.

And the Lord stirred up against Jehoram the anger of the Philistines and of the Arabians who are near the Ethiopians. And they came up against Judah and invaded it and carried away all the possessions they found that belonged to the king’s house, and also his sons and his wives, so that no son was left to him except Jehoahaz, his youngest son. – 2 Chronicles 21:16-17 ESV

And his final days in office would be excruciatingly painful due to a divinely-ordained  disease that eventually took his life.

…after all this the Lord struck him in his bowels with an incurable disease. In the course of time, at the end of two years, his bowels came out because of the disease, and he died in great agony. – 2 Chronicles 21:18-19 ESV

Upon his death, his son, Ahaziah, ascended to the throne. This 21-year-old king proved to be just as wicked as his father. “He also walked in the way of the house of Ahab and did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, as the house of Ahab had done” (2 Kings 8:27 ESV). But this should come as no surprise because he was the grandson of Ahab. Wickedness was in his DNA. The fact that his mother was the daughter of Ahab ensured that Ahaziah maintained a close and, ultimately, deadly relationship with the northern kingdom. He would join King Jehoram of Israel in an ill-fated attack on the Syrian stronghold of Ramoth-gilead. King Jehoram was eventually wounded in that battle and forced to return to Jezreel in order to recuperate. And King Ahaziah would make a fateful decision to visit his uncle. But little did he know that this was all part of God’s providential plan for bringing an end to his wicked reign.

But it was ordained by God that the downfall of Ahaziah should come about through his going to visit Joram. – 2 Chronicles 22:7 ESV

God was in control. The kings of Israel and Judah could sit on their royal thrones, issue decrees, flaunt their power and revel in their sovereign authority, but they were no match for Yahweh. Ultimately, their wickedness would come head-to-head with His holiness. Their rebellion would result in His judgment. The sovereign will of God would be done.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

 

Different Brothers of the Same Mother

In the twentieth year of Jeroboam king of Israel, Asa began to reign over Judah, 10 and he reigned forty-one years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Maacah the daughter of Abishalom. 11 And Asa did what was right in the eyes of the Lord, as David his father had done. 12 He put away the male cult prostitutes out of the land and removed all the idols that his fathers had made. 13 He also removed Maacah his mother from being queen mother because she had made an abominable image for Asherah. And Asa cut down her image and burned it at the brook Kidron. 14 But the high places were not taken away. Nevertheless, the heart of Asa was wholly true to the Lord all his days. 15 And he brought into the house of the Lord the sacred gifts of his father and his own sacred gifts, silver, and gold, and vessels.

16 And there was war between Asa and Baasha king of Israel all their days. 17 Baasha king of Israel went up against Judah and built Ramah, that he might permit no one to go out or come in to Asa king of Judah. 18 Then Asa took all the silver and the gold that were left in the treasures of the house of the Lord and the treasures of the king’s house and gave them into the hands of his servants. And King Asa sent them to Ben-hadad the son of Tabrimmon, the son of Hezion, king of Syria, who lived in Damascus, saying, 19 “Let there be a covenant between me and you, as there was between my father and your father. Behold, I am sending to you a present of silver and gold. Go, break your covenant with Baasha king of Israel, that he may withdraw from me.” 20 And Ben-hadad listened to King Asa and sent the commanders of his armies against the cities of Israel and conquered Ijon, Dan, Abel-beth-maacah, and all Chinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali. 21 And when Baasha heard of it, he stopped building Ramah, and he lived in Tirzah. 22 Then King Asa made a proclamation to all Judah, none was exempt, and they carried away the stones of Ramah and its timber, with which Baasha had been building, and with them King Asa built Geba of Benjamin and Mizpah. 23 Now the rest of all the acts of Asa, all his might, and all that he did, and the cities that he built, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah? But in his old age he was diseased in his feet. 24 And Asa slept with his fathers and was buried with his fathers in the city of David his father, and Jehoshaphat his son reigned in his place. 1 Kings 15:9-24 ESV

The men who inherited the thrones of Judah and Israel were not doomed to repeat their predecessors’ mistakes. Their fate was not predetermined just because their fathers happened to model ungodly behavior. Though most of these men inherited kingdoms and legacies marked by sin and rebellion against God, they each had a choice to make. But as will become increasingly clear, few of them seemed to make the right choice. The sins of a father can have a powerful influence over his son. And the manner by which he conducts himself while performing his royal duties will make a strong impression on the one who follows in his footsteps – for better or worse.

In the case of Abijam, he was succeeded as king by his younger brother, Asa. These two brothers shared the same mother: Maacah the daughter of Abishalom [Absalom], and they had both had grown up in the household of Rehoboam. But they would each prove to approach their kingly responsibilities differently. While Abijam “walked in all the sins that his father did before him, and his heart was not wholly true to the Lord his God” (1 Kings 15:3 ESV), Asa “did what was right in the eyes of the Lord” (1 KIngs 15:11 ESV).

The book of 2 Chronicles provides further details concerning Asa’s reign.

In his days the land had rest for ten years. And Asa did what was good and right in the eyes of the Lord his God. He took away the foreign altars and the high places and broke down the pillars and cut down the Asherim and commanded Judah to seek the Lord, the God of their fathers, and to keep the law and the commandment. He also took out of all the cities of Judah the high places and the incense altars. And the kingdom had rest under him. He built fortified cities in Judah, for the land had rest. He had no war in those years, for the Lord gave him peace. – 2 Chronicles 15:1-6 ESV

This young man had born to the same pagan mother and had lived through the wicked reigns of his father and older brother, and yet he had managed to maintain a semblance of his faith in Yahweh. In fact, the author of 1 Kings declares that he “did what was pleasing in the Lord’s sight, as his ancestor David had done” (1 Kings 15:11 NLT). Perhaps he had managed to develop a close relationship with his grandfather David before his death. Or it could be that he had grown up hearing the stories of David’s many exploits and of his close relationship with God. It’s likely that he was intrigued and influenced by God’s description of David as “a man after his own heart,” (1 Samuel 13:14 ESV).

Something was triggered in Asa that led him to take a different path than that of his father and brother. After two decades of leadership that had promoted further idolatry and propagated a spirit of rebellion among the people of Judah, Asa appeared on the scene and determined to right the wrongs of his predecessors. And he got off to a great start.

He banished the male and female shrine prostitutes from the land and got rid of all the idols his ancestors had made. He even deposed his grandmother Maacah from her position as queen mother because she had made an obscene Asherah pole. He cut down her obscene pole and burned it in the Kidron Valley. – 1 Kings 15:12-13 NLT

These radical reforms must have been met with stiff opposition. After 20 years of worshiping false gods, the people of Judah had grown comfortable with the licentious and immoral nature of idolatry. They must have enjoyed the no-rules nature of these pagan religions. These man-made gods allowed them to satisfy their basest desires and offered a tempting alternative to the more legalist and restrictive laws that accompanied the worship of Yahweh. So, it seems likely that Asa’s reforms were not welcome with open arms.

But, in spite of any opposition he may have encountered, Asa attempted to redress the sins of his father and brother by removing all the pagan shrines they had built and restoring the worship of Yahweh. He made an effort to renew the nation’s commitment to the temple as the dwelling place of God and the only place where the worship of God was to be practiced.

he brought into the house of the Lord the sacred gifts of his father and his own sacred gifts, silver, and gold, and vessels. – 1 Kings 15:15 ESV

This seems to indicate that Asa and his brother had both been guilty of offering expensive gifts to the many false gods of Judah. But now that he was king, Asa was righting that wrong. He ordered the collection of all those valuable items and had them placed in the treasury of the temple. This very public act was both a demonstration of repentance and a very visible reminder that there was only one true God who was worthy of man’s worship and deserving of such gifts of honor and praise.

Asa’s reign would last 41 years, and while he “was wholly true to the Lord all his days” (1 Kings 15:14 ESV), he would find it difficult to completely eradicate all the vestiges of idolatry in the land. The author of 2 Chronicles states that he “commanded Judah to seek the Lord, the God of their fathers, and to keep the law and the commandment” (2 Chronicles 14:4 ESV), and that he “took out of all the cities of Judah the high places and the incense altars” (2 Chronicles 14:5 ESV). But 1 Kings reveals that his removal efforts were incomplete: “But the high places were not taken away” (1 Kings 15:14 ESV).

That little statement speaks volumes. It acts as a soft whisper of warning, providing a foreboding omen of what is to come. Asa’s, while sincere and well-intentioned, would prove to be incomplete. Asa’s failure to remove all the high places was like a doctor failing to locate and remove all the cancer cells from the body of his patient. Those few sacred sites that were left standing would continue to lure the people of Judah away from God, and the apostasy they produced would continue to spread like cancer throughout the nation. His partial obedience, while praise-worthy, would in the long-run prove insufficient. And there were other signs that Asa’s love for God, while strong, had been influenced by the actions of his father and brother.

The author of 2 Chronicles states that Asa“ had no war in those years, for the Lord gave him peace” (2 Chronicles 14:6 ESV), and yet 1 Kings 15:16 paints a slightly different picture.

…there was war between Asa and Baasha king of Israel all their days. – 1 Kings 15:16 ESV

This is not a contradiction, but simply a recognition that the animosity between the northern and southern kingdoms had not abated. Thirty-six years into his 41-year reign, Asa found himself facing a threat from Baasha, the king of Israel. This man had murdered Nadab, the son of Jeroboam, and crowned himself king. And then, in an effort to secure his hold on the throne, he executed Jeroboam’s entire family (1 Kings 15:29). His actions seemed to have spawned a mass-exodus of people who began to cross the border into Judah in order to escape his reign of terror. So, as a preventative measure, Baasha built a fortified city along the border that provided a military presence to deter any further desertions.

What happens next provides a further glimpse into Asa’s heart and how he viewed his relationship with God. When faced with this increased military presence at his border, Asa decided to seek outside help. Notice that he did not seek assistance from God. Instead, he took the sacred treasures from the house of God and sent them to “Ben-hadad the son of Tabrimmon, the son of Hezion, king of Syria” (1 Kings 15:18 ESV). In essence, he sent a bribe to the king of Syria, in the hopes that this pagan king would come to the aid of Judah. And his ploy worked.

And Ben-hadad listened to King Asa and sent the commanders of his armies against the cities of Israel and conquered Ijon, Dan, Abel-beth-maacah, and all Chinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali. And when Baasha heard of it, he stopped building Ramah – 1 Kings 1:20-21 ESV

Asa ordered the immediate dismantling of Baasha’s military outpost and peace was restored. But there’s more to the story. The book of 2 Chronicles reveals that Asa’s decision to make a covenant with the king of Syria had been outside the will of God. The prophet of God delivered a stinging rebuke to Asa.

“Because you relied on the king of Syria, and did not rely on the Lord your God, the army of the king of Syria has escaped you.…You have done foolishly in this, for from now on you will have wars.” – 2 Chronicles 16:7,9 ESV

This news angered Asa and he had the prophet thrown in prison. And his anger did not abate. His frustration with God manifested itself in the form of cruel oppression of his own people. In time, he became a bitter man, driven by rage and suffering from poor health.

In the thirty-ninth year of his reign Asa was diseased in his feet, and his disease became severe. Yet even in his disease he did not seek the Lord, but sought help from physicians. – 2 Chronicles 16:12 ESV

The great reformer had become an angry and self-reliant ruler who refused to turn to God for healing or help. His reign lasted 41 long years but ended in pain, suffering, and alienation from God. And then, he died. Yes, he proved to be a better king than his brother but, in the end, they both suffered the same fate. Their sins had left them separated from God and both men ended up leaving less-than-stellar legacies. Of Asa, the author simply states, “in his old age he was diseased in his feet” (1 Kings 15:23 ESV). And what a fitting description for the end of Asa’s life. Forty-one years earlier, he had begun his reign walking in the footsteps of his grandfather David. He had been faithful and eager to be a man after God’s own heart. But by the end of his life, Asa’s walk with God had taken a devastating detour. And now, he found himself unable to walk at all, a fitting symbol of his greatly diminished spiritual condition.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

A Healthy or Harmful Heritage

1 Now in the eighteenth year of King Jeroboam the son of Nebat, Abijam began to reign over Judah. He reigned for three years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Maacah the daughter of Abishalom. And he walked in all the sins that his father did before him, and his heart was not wholly true to the Lord his God, as the heart of David his father. Nevertheless, for David’s sake the Lord his God gave him a lamp in Jerusalem, setting up his son after him, and establishing Jerusalem, because David did what was right in the eyes of the Lord and did not turn aside from anything that he commanded him all the days of his life, except in the matter of Uriah the Hittite. Now there was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all the days of his life. The rest of the acts of Abijam and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah? And there was war between Abijam and Jeroboam. And Abijam slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the city of David. And Asa his son reigned in his place. 1 Kings 15:1-8 ESV

All throughout his record of the kings of Judah and Israel, the author has dropped small hints or clues that provide further insight into the actions of these men. In the case of Rehoboam, the king of Judah, he reveals that “When Rehoboam died, he was buried among his ancestors in the City of David. His mother was Naamah, an Ammonite woman. Then his son Abijam became the next king” (1 Kings 14:31 NLT). Hidden away in these three sentences is a small detail that could easily be overlooked. But this seemingly innocuous fact helps to explain how the spiritual state of God’s chosen people had so quickly deteriorated.

Rehoboam was the son of Solomon, and Solomon had more than 700 wives and 300 concubines. Many of those women were foreign princesses who had been given to Solomon as part of the many peace agreements made between their home countries and Israel. And the author has already revealed that Solomon made many such treaties that required him to marry these women from pagan nations.

Now King Solomon loved many foreign women. Besides Pharaoh’s daughter, he married women from Moab, Ammon, Edom, Sidon, and from among the Hittites. The Lord had clearly instructed the people of Israel, “You must not marry them, because they will turn your hearts to their gods.” Yet Solomon insisted on loving them anyway. – 1 Kings 11:1-2 NLT

God had strictly forbidden the Israelites from taking wives for themselves from among the nations that lived in the land of Canaan. Long before the people of Israel had entered the land, Moses had clearly communicated God’s prohibition against any fraternization with the enemy.

“When the LORD your God brings you into the land you are about to enter and occupy, he will clear away many nations ahead of you: the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites. These seven nations are greater and more numerous than you. When the LORD your God hands these nations over to you and you conquer them, you must completely destroy them. Make no treaties with them and show them no mercy. You must not intermarry with them. Do not let your daughters and sons marry their sons and daughters, for they will lead your children away from me to worship other gods. Then the anger of the LORD will burn against you, and he will quickly destroy you.” – Deuteronomy 7:1-4 NLT

But Solomon had chosen to disobey God’s command – in a major way. He had hundreds of foreign wives and, according to the closing verses of 1 Kings 14, he had married a woman from among the Ammonites. And once again, this small detail is intended to shed light on the moral and spiritual state of the nation. To fully grasp the significance of Solomon’s marriage to this woman,  we have to understand that the Ammonites were the descendants of Lot, the nephew of Abraham. But more importantly, their very existence is tied to a sad and sordid event that had taken place in Lot’s life. After Lot and his two daughters had been rescued from the sinful city of Sodom by an angel of the Lord, they found themselves living in a cave in the wilderness. One night, while Lot was drunk, his two daughters had sexual relations with him, resulting in both of them becoming pregnant. And the book of Genesis tells us that “The younger daughter also gave birth to a son and named him Ben Ammi. He is the ancestor of the Ammonites of today” (Genesis 19:38 NLT).

Hundreds of years later, when the people of Israel were making their way from Egypt to the land of Canaan, their distant relatives, the Ammonites, would refuse to assist them. In fact, they would actually attempt to have them cursed. So, God put a permanent ban on the descendants of the Ammonites and Moabites.

No Ammonite or Moabite or any of their descendants for ten generations may be admitted to the assembly of the LORD. These nations did not welcome you with food and water when you came out of Egypt. Instead, they hired Balaam son of Beor from Pethor in distant Aram-naharaim to curse you. But the LORD your God refused to listen to Balaam. He turned the intended curse into a blessing because the LORD your God loves you. As long as you live, you must never promote the welfare and prosperity of the Ammonites or Moabites. – Deuteronomy 23:3-6 NLT

Yet Solomon had chosen to disobey the will of God by marrying an Ammonite princess. And from this unauthorized and illegal union had come the next king of Israel, Rehoboam, a man who proved to be anything but loyal to God. And when Rehoboam died, his son Abijam took his place. But even in announcing Abijam as the next king of Judah, the author drops another not-so-subtle hint regarding this man’s lineage. He states that “His mother’s name was Maacah the daughter of Abishalom” (1 Kings 15:2 ESV). To understand the significance of this detail, we have to look at the book of 2 Chronicles.

Rehoboam took as wife Mahalath the daughter of Jerimoth the son of David, and of Abihail the daughter of Eliab the son of Jesse, and she bore him sons, Jeush, Shemariah, and Zaham. After her he took Maacah the daughter of Absalom, who bore him Abijah, Attai, Ziza, and Shelomith. Rehoboam loved Maacah the daughter of Absalom above all his wives and concubines (he took eighteen wives and sixty concubines, and fathered twenty-eight sons and sixty daughters). – 2 Chronicles 11:18-21 ESV

Abishalom is another variation of the name, Absalom. And Abijah and Abijam are one and the same person. So, what’s the point? It is that Rehoboam married a daughter of the very man who had tried to steal the crown from his grandfather, David. And Absalom had succeeded in doing so, if only for a short period of time. Had he managed to complete his coup attempt, Solomon would have never been the next king of Israel. And yet, Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, had married the daughter of the man who had attempted to deny his father his God-given right to the throne of Israel.

There are so many plots and twists to this story that remain hidden from view, but they provide the context for all that we see happening. The individual actions of these men are to be seen as the byproducts of a much bigger problem. The nation of Israel has a long and sordid history of disobedience to God and each successive generation follows in the footsteps of their ancestors, displaying the lingering and infectious nature of sin. And it becomes painfully clear that each indiscretion and act of insubordination, no matter how small, has consequences. Our sins against God can take on a life of their own and, in the same way that an infectious disease can be spread from one person to another, so we can end up passing on our sinful propensities to the next generation. And that is exactly what happened with the son of Rehoboam.

…he walked in all the sins that his father did before him, and his heart was not wholly true to the Lord his God, as the heart of David his father. – 1 Kings 15:3 ESV

Yet, God had his hand on Abijah, giving him victories over Jeroboam and the ten tribes of Israel. But it was not because of anything Abijah had done. God was honoring the faithfulness of David.

But for David’s sake, the Lord his God allowed his descendants to continue ruling, shining like a lamp, and he gave Abijam a son to rule after him in Jerusalem. For David had done what was pleasing in the Lord’s sight and had obeyed the Lord’s commands throughout his life, except in the affair concerning Uriah the Hittite. – 1 Kings 15:4-5 NLT

Not only do our sins have consequences, but our acts of faithfulness can be passed on as well. God was preserving the kingdom of the rebellious Abijah because of the faithfulness of his grandfather. And, amazingly, some of David’s faithfulness had been passed down to his grandson, manifesting itself in a powerful declaration of allegiance to God, spoken to the rival forces of the ten northern tribes.

“Do you really think you can stand against the kingdom of the Lord that is led by the descendants of David? You may have a vast army, and you have those gold calves that Jeroboam made as your gods. But you have chased away the priests of the Lord (the descendants of Aaron) and the Levites, and you have appointed your own priests, just like the pagan nations. You let anyone become a priest these days! Whoever comes to be dedicated with a young bull and seven rams can become a priest of these so-called gods of yours! But as for us, the Lord is our God, and we have not abandoned him.” – 2 Chronicles 13:8-10 NLT

And when the battle ensued, the people of Judah cried out to God, and He delivered them.

So Judah defeated Israel on that occasion because they trusted in the Lord, the God of their ancestors. – 2 Chronicles 13:18 NLT

God gave Abijah and the people of Judah a great victory over their enemies. This rebellious young king, who had inherited many of his father’s worst traits, had managed to lead his people back to the Lord, if only for a moment. Faced with overwhelming odds and the threat of defeat at the hands of Jeroboam and the ten tribes of Judah, Abijah had cried out to God. In that brief, shining moment, the nation of Judah had placed their hope in the Almighty and He had delivered. But sadly, Abijah’s moment of faithfulness proved to be short-lived. And the author simply records: “And Abijam slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the city of David. And Asa his son reigned in his place” ( 1 Kings 15:8 ESV).

The legacy continues. But what will be the nature of this new generation of leadership? Will the next king be faithful or faithless? Will he display a heart for God or a hard-headed insistence to live in rebellion against God? Only time will tell.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson