22 “You shall tithe all the yield of your seed that comes from the field year by year. 23 And before the Lord your God, in the place that he will choose, to make his name dwell there, you shall eat the tithe of your grain, of your wine, and of your oil, and the firstborn of your herd and flock, that you may learn to fear the Lord your God always. 24 And if the way is too long for you, so that you are not able to carry the tithe, when the Lord your God blesses you, because the place is too far from you, which the Lord your God chooses, to set his name there, 25 then you shall turn it into money and bind up the money in your hand and go to the place that the Lord your God chooses 26 and spend the money for whatever you desire—oxen or sheep or wine or strong drink, whatever your appetite craves. And you shall eat there before the Lord your God and rejoice, you and your household. 27 And you shall not neglect the Levite who is within your towns, for he has no portion or inheritance with you.
28 “At the end of every three years you shall bring out all the tithe of your produce in the same year and lay it up within your towns. 29 And the Levite, because he has no portion or inheritance with you, and the sojourner, the fatherless, and the widow, who are within your towns, shall come and eat and be filled, that the Lord your God may bless you in all the work of your hands that you do.” – Deuteronomy 14:22-29 ESV
The people of Israel were prohibited from eating certain foods, as determined by God. Their adherence to this command would help to enhance their status as God’s chosen and set-apart people. It would further differentiate and distinquish them from the pagan nations living within the land. But it would also enable them to bear or carry their designation as God’s people without fear of compromise or the risk of bringing shame to His name.
While they were to set themselves apart by refraining from the consumption of certain foods, they were also expected to display their holiness or set-apartness by observing the Sabbath and all the ritual observances associated with it. This included the annual tithe as well as the once-every-three year tithe. Moses reminded them to:
“Bring this tithe to the designated place of worship—the place the Lord your God chooses for his name to be honored—and eat it there in his presence. This applies to your tithes of grain, new wine, olive oil, and the firstborn males of your flocks and herds.” – Deuteronomy 14:23 NLT
Food was a vital part of their existence and they were to recognize God as the source of all their needs. By refraining from eating certain foods, they displayed their faith in God’s ability to provide more than enough non-prohibited food in order to sustain them. And when God blessed them with grain, wine, olive oil, flocks, and herds, their willingness to offer a portion of their bounty back to Him was an additional sign of their reliance upon Him.
Moses had already specified that God was going to choose a specific place within the land where the Tabernacle was to be set up. It would be there, and there alone, that the Israelites would bring their tithes and offerings.
“There you will bring your burnt offerings, your sacrifices, your tithes, your sacred offerings, your offerings to fulfill a vow, your voluntary offerings, and your offerings of the firstborn animals of your herds and flocks. There you and your families will feast in the presence of the Lord your God, and you will rejoice in all you have accomplished because the Lord your God has blessed you.” – Deuteronomy 12:6-7 NLT
Moses was assuring the people that God was going to bless them and, when He did, they were to return a portion of all He gave them as a sign of their gratefulness and as further proof of their reliance upon Him. These annual events were additional ways in which God chose to set the people of Israel apart. These feasts and festivals would be unique to them as a nation, and their observance of them would further enhance their status as God’s chosen people.
God had already dictated His will concerning these annual events, making them a part of the commandments He had passed on to them through Moses.
“Each year you must celebrate three festivals in my honor. First, celebrate the Festival of Unleavened Bread. For seven days the bread you eat must be made without yeast, just as I commanded you. Celebrate this festival annually at the appointed time in early spring, in the month of Abib, for that is the anniversary of your departure from Egypt. No one may appear before me without an offering.
“Second, celebrate the Festival of Harvest, when you bring me the first crops of your harvest.
“Finally, celebrate the Festival of the Final Harvest at the end of the harvest season, when you have harvested all the crops from your fields. At these three times each year, every man in Israel must appear before the Sovereign, the Lord.” – Exodus 23:14-17 NLT
In a sense, these feasts and festivals were to act as tests to determine the obedience of the Israelites, but also to measure the degree of their trust. In an agrarian culture, giving back a portion of your produce was a literal sacrifice. They were giving up their source of livelihood and displaying their faith that God would continue to meet all their needs. In doing so, they were showing that they were not trusting the gifts more than the Giver.
But one of the things that gets overlooked in all of this is God’s gracious allowance for celebration in the midst of all the sacrifice. While they were expected to give back to God, He wanted them to rejoice in the blessings He had provide. So, these annual events were to be celebrations where the people enjoyed the blessings of God. Moses told them to “feast there in the presence of the Lord your God and celebrate with your household” (Deuteronomy 14:26 NLT).
There was a communal aspect to these celebrations. While the nation of Israel had been divided into 12 tribes and those tribes would end up living in 12 separate regions within the land, they were to gather as a nation on these feast days and celebrate the goodness of God together. And no one was to be left out. God demanded that the Levites, the only tribe not given a portion of the land as an inheritance, would be provided for by the 11 other tribes. And every single foreigner, orphan, and widow was to be included in these annual celebrations. No one was to be left out or allowed to go without. God’s goodness was to be shared with all.
Once again, these God-ordained events were meant to set the people of Israel apart as belonging to God. These feasts and festivals were unique to the nation of Israel, further differentiating them from the rest of the nations around them. and enhancing their reputation as God’s chosen people.
English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.