1 For three years Syria and Israel continued without war. 2 But in the third year Jehoshaphat the king of Judah came down to the king of Israel. 3 And the king of Israel said to his servants, “Do you know that Ramoth-gilead belongs to us, and we keep quiet and do not take it out of the hand of the king of Syria?” 4 And he said to Jehoshaphat, “Will you go with me to battle at Ramoth-gilead?” And Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, “I am as you are, my people as your people, my horses as your horses.”
5 And Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, “Inquire first for the word of the Lord.” 6 Then the king of Israel gathered the prophets together, about four hundred men, and said to them, “Shall I go to battle against Ramoth-gilead, or shall I refrain?” And they said, “Go up, for the Lord will give it into the hand of the king.” 7 But Jehoshaphat said, “Is there not here another prophet of the Lord of whom we may inquire?” 8 And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “There is yet one man by whom we may inquire of the Lord, Micaiah the son of Imlah, but I hate him, for he never prophesies good concerning me, but evil.” And Jehoshaphat said, “Let not the king say so.” 9 Then the king of Israel summoned an officer and said, “Bring quickly Micaiah the son of Imlah.” 10 Now the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah were sitting on their thrones, arrayed in their robes, at the threshing floor at the entrance of the gate of Samaria, and all the prophets were prophesying before them. 11 And Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah made for himself horns of iron and said, “Thus says the Lord, ‘With these you shall push the Syrians until they are destroyed.’” 12 And all the prophets prophesied so and said, “Go up to Ramoth-gilead and triumph; the Lord will give it into the hand of the king.”
13 And the messenger who went to summon Micaiah said to him, “Behold, the words of the prophets with one accord are favorable to the king. Let your word be like the word of one of them, and speak favorably.” 14 But Micaiah said, “As the Lord lives, what the Lord says to me, that I will speak.” – 1 Kings 22:1-14 ESV
King Ahab had been placed under a curse from God for having spared the life of Ben-hadad, the king of Syria. Rather than obey God’s command to put his enemy to death, Ahab had chosen to sign a peace treaty with him that would allow Israel to profit from Syria’s lucrative trading business. Yet, despite the judgment leveled against him by God, Ahab’s decision seems to have produced positive results.
The treaty that Ahab had brokered produced three years of peace and prosperity between the two nations. Israel and Syria had become allies and trading partners. According to an inscription on an Assyrian tablet discovered in 1861, Ahab and Ben-hadad had been part of a 12-nation confederation that faced Emperor Shalmaneser and the Assyrians in the battle of Qarqar in 853 BC. So, while God had decreed that Ahab’s dynasty would come to an end with his death, the king of Israel continued to enjoy a small measure of success. And his insatiable desire for glory and self-aggrandizement would eventually drive him to jeopardize his peaceful and prosperous relationship with Syria.
During the time in which Ahab had been on the throne of Israel, Jehoshaphat had become the king of Judah. He had succeeded his father, Asa. And according to the book of 2 Chronicles, Jehoshaphat had proven to be a good king.
The Lord was with Jehoshaphat, because he walked in the earlier ways of his father David. He did not seek the Baals, but sought the God of his father and walked in his commandments, and not according to the practices of Israel. Therefore the Lord established the kingdom in his hand. And all Judah brought tribute to Jehoshaphat, and he had great riches and honor. His heart was courageous in the ways of the Lord. And furthermore, he took the high places and the Asherim out of Judah. – 2 Chronicles 17:3-6 ESV
Because Jehoshaphat chose to remove all the false gods and restore the worship of the one true God, his reign was blessed, and the southern kingdom of Judah became a powerful force in the region. But Jehoshaphat, like his father before him, made the mistake of placing his trust in the Syrians. When King Baasha of Israel had begun to build a fortified city on the border between Israel and Judah, King Asa had sought the help of Ben-hadad and the Syrians. Asa “took silver and gold from the treasures of the house of the Lord and the king’s house and sent them to Ben-hadad king of Syria” (2 Chronicles 16:2 ESV). He used these funds to convince Ben-hadad to break his covenant with Israel and join forces with him. His ploy worked, and Baasha stopped construction on his military outpost. But God condemned Asa for his alliance with Ben-hadad, warning that Judah would face non-stop war during the rest of his reign. Rather than trust God, Asa had placed his hope in a foreign king who worshiped false gods.
And while his son Jehoshaphat would prove to be faithful to God, he would also make an alliance with an ungodly, idol-worshiping king.
Now Jehoshaphat had great riches and honor, and he made a marriage alliance with Ahab. After some years he went down to Ahab in Samaria. And Ahab killed an abundance of sheep and oxen for him and for the people who were with him, and induced him to go up against Ramoth-gilead. – 2 Chronicles 18:1-2 ESV
This marital alliance ended up putting Jehoshaphat in an awkward situation. While visiting Israel’s capital city of Samaria, Jehoshaphat was presented with an official request from Ahab for military assistance in recapturing the city of Ramoth-gilead from the Syrians. It galled Ahab that the Syrians had stolen a city that had once belonged to Israel, and nothing had been done about it.
“Do you know that Ramoth-gilead belongs to us, and we keep quiet and do not take it out of the hand of the king of Syria?” – 1 Kings 22:3 ESV
So, he called on Jehoshaphat to help him right this apparent wrong. And Jehoshaphat quickly and readily agreed.
“I am as you are, my people as your people, my horses as your horses.” – 1 Kings 22:4 ESV
But Jehoshaphat, anxious to remain obedient to God, asked Ahab to seek the Lord’s counsel. And it’s important to understand that Jehoshaphat wanted to know what the “Lord” (Yahweh) would have them do. But when Ahab commissioned his 400 prophets to seek the will of the gods, they came back with the answer:
“Go up, for the Lord (ăḏōnāy) will give it into the hand of the king.” – 1 Kings 22:6 ESV
These men do not mention the name of Yahweh, and Jehoshaphat seems to have immediately recognized that these were false prophets who had been seeking the will of their false god. So, he asked Ahab if there were no prophets of the one true God left in Israel. And Ahab confessed that there was one, a man named Micaiah, who he hated with a passion.
“He never prophesies anything but trouble for me!” – 1 Kings 22:8 NLT
Micaiah never told Ahab what he wanted to hear, so the king avoided him like the plague. But Jehoshaphat insisted that Micaiah be consulted before any action was taken against the Syrians. So, reluctantly, Ahab sent someone to fetch his least-favorite prophet. In the meantime, his 400 false prophets bombarded Jehoshaphat with their cheery predictions of success.
“Go up to Ramoth-gilead and triumph; the Lord will give it into the hand of the king.” – 1 Kings 22:12 ESV
We’re not told how long it took for Micaiah to be located and brought to Samaria. But during the delay, Jehoshaphat found himself pressured to listen to the false prophets and throw in his lot with Ahab. The temptation to compromise his convictions was great. He could have easily given in and listened to the popular opinions of the crowd, but instead, Jehoshaphat waited to hear a word from Yahweh.
Even Micaiah found himself pressured to follow the party line. The messenger who located him delivered a not-so-subtle warning that there was only one answer King Ahab wanted to hear.
“Look, all the prophets are promising victory for the king. Be sure that you agree with them and promise success.” – 1 Kings 22: 13 NLT
But Micaiah would not be bullied into submission. He knew how much Ahab hated him, and he would be risking his life to disobey a direct order from the king. But his allegiance to Yahweh was greater than his fear of Ahab. So, he told the messenger, “As surely as the Lord lives, I will say only what the Lord tells me to say” (1 Kings 22:14 NLT).
That must have been a long and awkward trip back to Samaria for the messenger. He probably feared for his own life because he knew the prophet would give the king bad news. Everyone who worked for Ahab and all the people who lived in Israel knew that their king had no love affair with Yahweh. He had spent his entire reign promoting the worship of false gods like Baal and Asherah. And he had done everything he could do to ignore and even eliminate the prophets of God. Ahab knew exactly what Micaiah was going to say when he showed up, and it would not be what he wanted to hear. Ahab needed Jehoshaphat’s help, and he knew that Jehoshaphat’s God would stand opposed to his ambitious plans to recapture Ramoth-gilead. Ahab didn’t want to hear from God because he was not willing to do the will of God.
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