17 Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch. When he built a city, he called the name of the city after the name of his son, Enoch. 18 To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad fathered Mehujael, and Mehujael fathered Methushael, and Methushael fathered Lamech. 19 And Lamech took two wives. The name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. 20 Adah bore Jabal; he was the father of those who dwell in tents and have livestock. 21 His brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all those who play the lyre and pipe. 22 Zillah also bore Tubal-cain; he was the forger of all instruments of bronze and iron. The sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah.
23 Lamech said to his wives:
“Adah and Zillah, hear my voice;
you wives of Lamech, listen to what I say:
I have killed a man for wounding me,
a young man for striking me.
24 If Cain’s revenge is sevenfold,
then Lamech’s is seventy-sevenfold.”
25 And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son and called his name Seth, for she said, “God has appointed for me another offspring instead of Abel, for Cain killed him.” 26 To Seth also a son was born, and he called his name Enosh. At that time people began to call upon the name of the Lord. – Genesis 4:17-26 ESV
One of the key themes found in the opening chapters of the book of Genesis is that of fruitfulness. God expected His creation, both plant and animal, to multiply and spread across the face of the earth.
The earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed according to their own kinds, and trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind. – Genesis 1:12 ESV
It would appear from the preceding verse, that God started the entire process with plants that grew from seeds. In other words, the plants didn’t suddenly appear as fully grown and mature specimens.
Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit in which is their seed… – Genesis 1:11 ESV
The Hebrew word Moses used is דָּשָׁא (dāšā’), and it means “to sprout, to cause to shoot forth.” God created the seeds, planted them in the ground, and then caused them to grow. It is likely that the whole process took place in record time as God miraculously sped up the entire growth cycle.
When it came to the living creatures, God created them ex nihilo – out of nothing – forming them as fully grown and completely mature. It was necessary to create the adult male and female of each species in order for them to procreate and make more of their own kind. But while God made only one male and one female human, He appears to have made countless living creatures.
“Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the heavens.” – Genesis 1:20 ESV
“Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kinds—livestock and creeping things and beasts of the earth according to their kinds.” – Genesis 1:24 ESV
And in both cases, God commanded all the living creatures to “be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 1:22 ESV). They were to fill the seas, the sky, and the earth with more of their kind. And Adam and Eve were given the same mandate, which they faithfully obeyed. The first couple used their God-ordained gift of procreation to produce two sons: Cain and Abel. Eve’s earlier decision to disobey God and eat the forbidden fruit had not impaired her own fruit-bearing capacity. But according to the curse God placed on Eve and her female descendants, child-birth would always be accompanied by pain. And, in the case of Eve, her fruitfulness was accompanied by the unexpected specter of death, as her firstborn son went on to kill his younger brother. She and Adam had faithfully multiplied their kind, but in taking the life of his innocent brother, Cain had committed an act of treacherous subtraction. From this point forward, life and fruitfulness would be accompanied by death and barrenness. Sin had entered the scene and nothing would be the same anymore. The creation had been marred. And as the book of Genesis unfolds, the darkness that had once held sway would return.
Even Cain, the convicted murderer, was capable of producing more of his own kind. One of the questions that always comes up at this point of the creation story is “Where did Cain find a wife?” According to Genesis 5:4, Adam and Eve “had other sons and daughters.” So, it would seem that Cain eventually ended up marrying one of his own sisters. While God would later ban such inter-family relationships (Leviticus 18:9), there was no such prohibition at this time. God had clearly intended for Adam and Eve’s descendants to intermarry and populate the planet.
Cain’s wife proved fruitful and bore him a son, whom Cain named Enoch. And then the text provides an interesting aside, stating that Cain built a city, which he named after his son. This decision to construct a city in which to dwell appears to fly in the face of the curse that God had placed on Cain.
“Now you are cursed and banished from the ground, which has swallowed your brother’s blood. No longer will the ground yield good crops for you, no matter how hard you work! From now on you will be a homeless wanderer on the earth.” – Genesis 4:11-12 NLT
Cain decided to ignore God’s curse and built himself a permanent home. And it was in this location that his son carried on the divine mandate and made more of “their kind.”
Enoch had a son named Irad. Irad became the father of Mehujael. Mehujael became the father of Methushael. Methushael became the father of Lamech. – Genesis 4:18 ESV
This one simple sentence contains five generations of Cainites. This branch of Adam’s family tree proved to be fruitful in more ways than one. Not only did they procreate, but they proved to be creative. Lamech’s son, Jubal, became “the father of all those who play the lyre and pipe” (Genesis 4:21 ESV). His other son, Tubal-Cain, became a “forger of all instruments of bronze and iron” (Genesis 4:22 ESV).
Mankind was not only expanding but exploring all the myriad possibilities available to it as God’s vice-regents. They display a divinely sanctioned enablement for ingenuity and creativity that was unavailable to the rest of the living creatures. Humanity, made in the image of God, was capable of accomplishing great things. But because of the fall, man’s capacity for good would always be accompanied by a penchant for evil. According to the apostle Paul, the sin of Adam was passed down from generation to generation.
For the sin of this one man, Adam, brought death to many. – Romans 5:15 NLT
Yes, Adam’s one sin brings condemnation for everyone… – Romans 5:18 NLT
Every child born to Adam and Eve came into the world bearing their proclivity for sin and rebellion. And it hadn’t taken long for Cain to exhibit his inherited propensity for evil. And some six generations later, Lamech would display a striking resemblance to his ancient forebearer. He would follow in his patriarch’s footsteps, committing yet another act of fruit-less-ness. Lamech would boastfully brag about his murder of an adversary.
“I have killed a man who attacked me,
a young man who wounded me.
If someone who kills Cain is punished seven times,
then the one who kills me will be punished seventy-seven times!” – Genesis 4:23-24 NLT
There is no sorrow or regret in Lamech’s words. He is justifying his actions and even threatening to do the same thing again, with God’s blessing. He seems to believe that if God was willing to avenge a murderer like Cain, then God would certainly excuse his justified act of self-defense. Lamech is claiming to have God on his side. But he misses the whole point behind the story of Abel’s death. In killing his brother, Cain had arrogantly abrogated God’s right to determine life and death. He had spilled the blood of his brother and God had declared His dissatisfaction.
“What have you done? Listen! Your brother’s blood cries out to me from the ground!” – Genesis 4:10 NLT
The branch of Adam’s family tree that led through Cain was producing bad fruit. In His sermon on the mount, Jesus delivered a powerful lesson concerning the fruit-bearing properties of trees.
“A good tree produces good fruit, and a bad tree produces bad fruit. A good tree can’t produce bad fruit, and a bad tree can’t produce good fruit. So every tree that does not produce good fruit is chopped down and thrown into the fire. Yes, just as you can identify a tree by its fruit, so you can identify people by their actions.” – Matthew 7:17-20 NLT
And, in Genesis 4, Moses traces the lineage of Adam and Eve through a different branch of the same family tree that would prove to produce a different quality of fruit.
Adam had sexual relations with his wife again, and she gave birth to another son. She named him Seth, for she said, “God has granted me another son in place of Abel, whom Cain killed.” – Genesis 4:25 NLT
God graciously replaced what Cain had taken away. Adam and Eve continued to be faithful and fruitful, producing yet another son who filled the void left by Abel. And this son, Seth, would go on to father his own son, a man named Enosh. And then Moses reveals the dramatic difference between these two branches of the same family tree.
At that time people first began to worship the Lord by name. – Genesis 4:26 NLT
While Lamech, the arrogant descendant of Cain, was busy glorying over his taking of another man’s life, the descendants of Seth were glorying in the author of life. In these two distinctively different branches of Adam’s family tree, we see the grace of God displayed in all its glory. God was going to faithfully keep the promise He had made concerning the seed of the woman. In keeping with the protoevangelium, or first gospel, recorded in Genesis 3:15, God would see to it that a godly offspring would “spring forth” from the line of Adam.
“And I will cause hostility between you and the woman,
and between your offspring and her offspring.
He will strike your head,
and you will strike his heel.” – Genesis 3:15 NLT
For every Lamech, there would be an Enosh. For every lost Abel, God would provide a Seth. He would maintain the line of Adam and keep the hope alive.
For the sin of this one man, Adam, caused death to rule over many. But even greater is God’s wonderful grace and his gift of righteousness, for all who receive it will live in triumph over sin and death through this one man, Jesus Christ. – Romans 5:17 NLT
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