Walk the Talk

Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience. Therefore do not become partners with them; for at one time you were darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light (for the fruit of light is found in all that is good and right and true), 10 and try to discern what is pleasing to the Lord. 11 Take no part in the unfruitful works of darkness, but instead expose them. 12 For it is shameful even to speak of the things that they do in secret. 13 But when anything is exposed by the light, it becomes visible, 14 for anything that becomes visible is light. Therefore it says,

“Awake, O sleeper,
    and arise from the dead,
and Christ will shine on you.”  Ephesians 5:6-14 ESV

Paul had a predilection or preference for certain words or concepts, and he weaved them into all his letters. One for which he was particularly fond is the  word, “walk.” In Greek, the word is peripateō and it appears more than 30 times in the writings of Paul.  It means “to walk, to live, to conduct one’s life,” and it carries the idea of moving from one location to another. But for Paul, it was a way of describing how people, either saved or unsaved, conduct their lives.

Seven times in his letter to the Ephesians, Paul uses the word peripateō to describe the way people navigate life on this planet. Everyone, regardless of their relationship with Christ, is required to “live” or “walk” their way through life. The question is what manner of “walk” they will display. What will be the basis of their conduct? How will they deport themselves as they make their way through life? What rules will they live by and by what criteria will they measure their success or failure?

Throughout this letter, Paul repeatedly uses the word peripateō to convey his desire that the Ephesians live or walk in a manner worthy of the Lord (Ephesians 4:1). He uses it to compare their old lifestyle to the new one made possible through their faith in Christ. Seven different times, he uses this same Greek word to establish a contrast between the old sinful nature and the new, Spirit-enabled nature graciously provided to the child of God.

And you were dead in the trespasses and sins in which you once walked (peripateō), following the course of this world, following the prince of the power of the air – Ephesians 2:2 ESV

For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk (peripateō) in them. – Ephesians 2:10 ESV

I therefore, a prisoner for the Lord, urge you to walk (peripateō) in a manner worthy of the calling to which you have been called – Ephesians 4:1 ESV

Now this I say and testify in the Lord, that you must no longer walk (peripateō) as the Gentiles do, in the futility of their minds. – Ephesians 4:17 ESV

Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children. And walk (peripateō) in love, as Christ loved us and gave himself up for us, a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God. – Ephesians 5:1-2 ESV

for at one time you were darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk (peripateō) as children of light – Ephesians 58 ESV

Look carefully then how you walk, (peripateō) not as unwise but as wise, making the best use of the time, because the days are evil. – Ephesians 5:15-16 ESV

For Paul, the abundant life promised by Jesus (John 10:10) was not only possible, but it was indispensable and intended to be highly practical. Saving faith was meant to produce a radically different lifestyle modeled after Christ, enabled by the Spirit, and intended to glorify God the Father.

There is no place in the life of the believer for a dualistic or bifurcated approach to life. The willful mixing of old and new together is unacceptable and to be avoided at all costs. That is why Paul so strongly stated, “Let there be no sexual immorality, impurity, or greed among you. Such sins have no place among God’s people” (Ephesians 5:3 NLT). And just so his audience understands, he takes those rather broad categories and boils them down to specific examples of unacceptable behavior for believers: “Obscene stories, foolish talk, and coarse jokes—these are not for you” (Ephesians 5:4 NLT).

And Paul warns the Ephesians about the danger of rationalizing or justifying these kinds of behaviors.

Don’t be fooled by those who try to excuse these sins, for the anger of God will fall on all who disobey him. – Ephesians 5:5 NLT

For the Christ-follower, there is no excuse or explanation for such behavior. It can’t be excused or explained away as innocent or harmless. These kinds of “acceptable” behaviors are rooted in sexual immorality, impurity, or greed and, as Paul so strongly states, “You can be sure that no immoral, impure, or greedy person will inherit the Kingdom of Christ and of God” (Ephesians 5:5 NLT).

Paul goes out of his way to differentiate between the old and the new and, to do so, he uses the metaphor of dark and light.

…once you were full of darkness, but now you have light from the Lord. So live as people of light! For this light within you produces only what is good and right and true. – Ephesians 5:8-9 NLT

Something had changed. They were no longer who they used to be. They had been delivered from a life marked by darkness and sin and delivered into a new kingdom characterized by light and life. Paul emphasized this divine deliverance in his letter to the believers in Colossae.

…he [God] has rescued us from the kingdom of darkness and transferred us into the Kingdom of his dear Son, who purchased our freedom and forgave our sins. – Colossians 1:13-14 NLT

They were free to live distinctly different lives because they now possessed the indwelling power of the Holy Spirit. They had the God-given capacity to “walk as children of light” (Ephesians 5:8 ESV). In other words, not only had they been transferred into the Kingdom of God’s dear Son, but they had also been given the power to live as citizens of that Kingdom. That’s why Paul insists that they “Take no part in the worthless deeds of evil and darkness; instead, expose them” (Ephesians 5:11 NLT). They were no longer of this world. As Peter so aptly described it, they were “temporary residents and foreigners” whose task was “to keep away from worldly desires that wage war against your very souls” (1 Peter 2:11 NLT).

Light exposes darkness. That is Paul’s primary point in this passage. As children of light, they were expected to influence the darkness around them. Darkness is nothing more than the absence of light. So, the presence of these believers in their community should have resulted in a glaring exposure of the sins that lurked there. But instead, Paul seems to suggest that the Christians in Ephesus were actually joking about the sinfulness of their community. They were sharing obscene stories, engaging in foolish talk, and laughing at one another’s coarse jokes. In doing so, they were essentially hiding their light under a basket, something Jesus Himself warned about.

“You are the light of the world—like a city on a hilltop that cannot be hidden. No one lights a lamp and then puts it under a basket. Instead, a lamp is placed on a stand, where it gives light to everyone in the house. In the same way, let your good deeds shine out for all to see, so that everyone will praise your heavenly Father. – Matthew 5:14-16 NLT

Paul warns the Ephesians that their flippant approach to the sins of their community was unacceptable because it was ungodly.

It is shameful even to talk about the things that ungodly people do in secret. – Ephesians 5:12 NLT

And he firmly affixes the responsibility for exposing such behavior on the shoulders of the Ephesians Christians. Look closely at what he tells them.

…their evil intentions will be exposed when the light shines on them, for the light makes everything visible… – Ephesians 5:13-14 NLT

What is the source of that sin-exposing light? It is the believers who populate the church in Ephesus. They were, as Jesus put it, “the light of the world” and they were to shine so that the light of their good deeds was visible to “everyone in the house.” Paul wasn’t suggesting that they condemn their lost neighbors for their sinful behavior. No, he was calling on the Ephesian believers to live as light in the midst of the darkness. The good behavior of the Spirit-empowered Christians would radically expose the bad behavior of their lost neighbors and friends. The contrast would be palpable and powerful.

According to Paul, the believers to whom he wrote had a divine source for determining what was right and wrong.

…this light within you produces only what is good and right and true. – Ephesians 5:9 NLT

The indwelling presence of the Spirit of God provided them with the knowledge of God’s will that helped clarify and quality their conduct. That’s why Paul told the Galatian believers, “let the Holy Spirit guide your lives. Then you won’t be doing what your sinful nature craves” (Galatians 5:16 NLT). The Spirit was there to help them “discern what is pleasing to the Lord” (Ephesians 5:10 ESV). And once they knew what God deemed to be “good and right and true” (Ephesians 5:9), the Spirit could empower them to do it.

That’s why Paul issues a much-needed wake-up call. He pleads with his brothers and sisters, “Awake, O sleeper, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you” (Ephesians 5:14 ESV). They had become lulled into a stupified sense of compromise and complacency, and Paul was calling them to snap out of it. They were to walk as children of the light. Their very presence in Ephesus should have been making an impact on the sin-darkened lives of their neighbors and friends. They had been redeemed for a reason. Ephesus was not their home anymore, but it was their God-appointed base of operations while they waited for the arrival of their future home: the Kingdom of God. As long as God delayed His Son’s return, the Ephesian Christians were to be His ambassadors and serve as His light-bearing emissaries into a world darkened by sin and in desperate need of the light of life (John 1:4). Jesus had chosen to shine His life-giving light through them and, as the apostle John declared, “The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness can never extinguish it” (John 1:5 NLT).

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

New English Translation (NET)NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

 

A Predetermined and Perfect Plan

And God saw that the light was good. And God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day.

And God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” And God made the expanse and separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse. And it was so. And God called the expanse Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

And God said, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” And it was so. 10 God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good.

11 And God said, “Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind, on the earth.” And it was so. 12 The earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed according to their own kinds, and trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, the third day. Genesis 1:4-13 ESV

As Moses began his record of the creation account, he described a darkness being “over the face of the deep” (Genesis 1:2 ESV). The Hebrew word he used is חֹשֶׁךְ (ḥōšeḵ), which can be translated as “darkness, obscurity, or secret place.” It comes from the root word חָשַׁךְ (ḥāšaḵ), which was used to refer to the absence of light. Unlike everything else Moses is about to describe, the darkness was not created by God. It was simply the void created by the absence of light. For the ancients, darkness became a symbol for evil. It came to represent such things as misery, destruction, death, ignorance, sorrow, and wickedness. In the Tanakh, the Hebrew Scriptures, darkness is used to represent all that stands in opposition to God. It was also associated with God’s judgment.

Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness to be felt.” So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was pitch darkness in all the land of Egypt three days. They did not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days, but all the people of Israel had light where they lived. – Exodus 10:21-23 ESV

The prophet Isaiah wrote of a coming day when darkness would be invaded by another source of light.

The people who walked in darkness have seen a great light; those who dwelt in a land of deep darkness, on them has light shone. – Isaiah 9:2 ESV

And the apostle Matthew would later reveal that Isaiah’s prophecy had been predicting the coming of Jesus, the Messiah of Israel.

Now when he [Jesus] heard that John had been arrested, he withdrew into Galilee. And leaving Nazareth he went and lived in Capernaum by the sea, in the territory of Zebulun and Naphtali, so that what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled:

“The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali,
the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles—
the people dwelling in darkness
have seen a great light,
and for those dwelling in the region and shadow of death,
on them a light has dawned.” – Matthew 4:12-16 ESV

God’s great work of creation began with the coming of the light. And His grand plan of redemption began the same way. In Jesus, the light entered the darkness once again, setting in motion the divine plan for the re-creation of all things. The theme of darkness and light will continue all throughout the pages of Scripture, setting up an ongoing contrast between the forces of righteousness and wickedness, the godly and the ungodly.

But the glaring difference between darkness and light is not the only contrast found in the opening chapter of Genesis. As Moses presents the sequential nature of God’s creation timeline, he records a number of important divisions or contrasts that seem to separate one thing from another.

On the first day, God invaded the darkness with His light, providing a stark contrast between that which was good and all that would later come to represent evil. Moses states that God “separated the light from the darkness” (Genesis 1:4 ESV). The Hebrew word is בָּדַל (bāḏal) and it refers to a separating or distinguishing of one thing from another. God set apart His light from the darkness and deemed it “good” or טוֹב (ṭôḇ). According to the NET Bible study notes, the Hebrew word ṭôḇ refers to “whatever enhances, promotes, produces, or is conducive for life.” By contrast, the darkness was unproductive and incapable of promoting or sustaining life. It represented the absence of God’s life-giving light and, therefore, was deemed as being the opposite of “good.”

The separation of the light and the dark established the end of the first day of creation. But God was far from done. There was another separation or division to take place. On the beginning of the second day, God created the “expanse.”

“Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters…” – Genesis 1:6 ESV

The Hebrew word is רָקִיעַ (rāqîa) and it refers to what we would call the upper atmosphere. But to the ancient Hebrews, it was used to describe “an expanse of air pressure between the surface of the sea and the clouds, separating water below from water above” (NET Bible Study Notes). In we recall, the creation story began with the earth was shrouded by water.

The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. – Genesis 1:2 ESV

At this point in the story, God separates the waters and, in so doing, He creates the upper atmosphere or what is sometimes translated as the “firmament.” There are some biblical scholars who believe that this separating process created a band of water vapor around the earth that would later become one of the primary sources of water that helped to create the worldwide flood recorded in chapter 6-8 of Genesis. There we read, “on that day all the fountains of the great deep burst forth, and the windows of the heavens were opened. And rain fell upon the earth forty days and forty nights” (Genesis 7:11-12 ESV). It is believed that, at this time, the canopy of water surrounding the earth was released and acted as a major source of the water necessary to flood the entire earth in a very short period of time. It is also believed that this canopy served as a protective barrier from the sun’s harmful rays and helps to explain the longevity of human life prior to the flood.

But God separated the waters, creating yet another distinction between one thing and another. He “separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse” (Genesis 1:7 ESV) and He called His creation, “Heaven.” While the Hebrew word can be used to refer to heaven, in this context it makes more sense to translate it as “sky.” On this second day of creation, God separated the earth from the sky.

At this point, God turned His attention to the earth, where He performed another act of separation or division.

“Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” – Genesis 1:9 ESV

The earth, which had been covered and obscured by water, was suddenly exposed. God separated the water, allowing the formerly hidden land masses to become visible for the first time. What is significant about this phase of God’s creative act was that the land was going to be necessary to sustain human life. Man would not be able to exist in an atmosphere of total darkness or in an environment consisting of nothing but water. So, God sovereignly separated one thing from another so that mankind might have a proper place in which to live. This was all preparatory work for God’s greatest act of creation: Humanity.

Moses states that “God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good” (Genesis 1:10 ESV). God deemed it good because it was all part of His perfect plan. It was all according to His sovereign will and just as it needed to be to support the human life He would soon be creating. He knew that humanity would need air to breath, water to drink, and dry land on which to live. And so, He created all this for mankind’s good, long before they even existed. But God was far from done. Humanity would also need food to eat. So, He began the next phase of His preparatory work.

“Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind, on the earth.” – Genesis 1:11 ESV

And, once again, God declared His work to be good. Everything He made was just as He had planned it and every aspect of His creative work had a purpose. There was nothing that God created that lacked a reason for being. It was all highly intentional and pointed to something even greater to come.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

New English Translation (NET)NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

The Light of the World

1 In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light.  Genesis 1:1-3 ESV

Another way to translate the first three words of the book of Genesis is “when God created….” While God was “in the beginning,” this statement does not infer that He came into being at that moment in time. God is eternal and has always existed. His transcendent nature allows Him to operate free from the constraints of time and space. The “beginning” mentioned in the opening line of Genesis has to do with His creation of “the heavens and the earth.” According to His own divine prerogative, God made the executive decision to bring into existence that which had never existed before. And the opening chapters of Genesis record the amazing details of that epic and unprecedented event.

The opening two verses provide a summary statement of all that Moses describes in the verses that follow. Speaking of Moses, while there has been much debate as to the authorship of Genesis, I will be operating under the assumption that Jesus was right when He designated Moses as the one responsible for this book.

“But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed, in the passage about the bush, where he calls the Lord the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.” – Luke 20:37 ESV

Jesus repeatedly referred to Moses in association with the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures. And it seems that Jesus shared the view of His Jewish contemporaries who believed Moses to have been the author of all five books.

As we shall see, Moses plays a key role in the evolving narrative of the Hebrew people. And his record of this seminal moment in humanity’s history will eventually reveal his decidedly Hebraic bias. While his creation record provides an explanation for the “beginnings” of all mankind, Moses was attempting to explain the unique relationship shared between the Creator-God and a particular group of human beings that would later become known as the people of Israel. The books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, commonly referred to as the Torah, form the first part of the Tanakh, the Hebrew term for their Scriptures. And throughout the pages of the Tanakh, the historical evolution of God’s chosen people is revealed in vivid and, sometimes, disturbing detail.

The book of Genesis, as its name implies, provides the genesis or beginning of the nation of Israel. Moses wrote this book to provide his own people with an explanation of their origins and to reveal to them the unique and unparalleled plan that God for them as a nation. The story of their birth as a nation was unlike any other. And while they shared a common heritage with the rest of humanity that dated back to the creation account, they enjoyed a privileged position as God’s chosen people. The question was, how had they acquired their unprecedented relationship with the God who made the heavens and the earth? What had they done to deserve such a favored position that set them apart from all the other nations of the earth?

The book of Genesis provides the answers to those questions and many more. It does so by returning its readers to the primordial darkness of the pre-creation age, long before anything existed including man.

The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. – Genesis 1:2 ESV

This verse appears to describe God’s work of creation in mid-process. It is a summary verse that reveals that the earth had been created but was not yet fully formed or organized according to God’s well-designed plan. Moses paints a rather bleak picture, describing the a pervading and foreboding darkness “over the face of the deep.” The Hebrew word for deep is תְּהוֹם (tᵊhôm), and it means “the depths” or “a surging mass of water.” It was typically used to refer to the oceans. But in this case, it seems to be a reference to the earth itself, which, according to verses 9-10, was covered with water.

And God said, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” And it was so. God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. – Genesis 1:9-10 ESV

Up until that moment, the earth had been an undefined and uninhabitable mass, completely submerged under an impenetrable layer of water. But there’s hope in the midst of all the chaos and confusion: “…the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters” (Genesis 1:3 ESV). The imagery is that of a mother bird brooding over her eggs as she waits for them to hatch. While the earth was “without form and void,” Moses describes the Spirit of God as lovingly brooding over this shapeless and humanly hostile environment. God had begun the creative process but was not yet finished. He had a divine plan in place that, when complete, would transform the earth into a literal garden of Eden.

It’s almost as if Moses is telegraphing a message to his people in an attempt to remind them that they worship a God of order, not confusion. And their God has a plan for their future. While there might be times when everything around them appeared dark and confusing, they could trust that God was not done. Hundreds of years after Moses wrote the book of Genesis, the prophet Jeremiah would record the following words from God. They were a reminder that, even after 70 years of forced captivity in Babylon, God would do something remarkable that would suddenly dispel the darkness of their current condition and replace it with light.

“For thus says the Lord: When seventy years are completed for Babylon, I will visit you, and I will fulfill to you my promise and bring you back to this place. For I know the plans I have for you, declares the LORD, plans for welfare and not for evil, to give you a future and a hope.”  – Jeremiah 20:10-11 ESV

Verse 2 of the opening chapter of Genesis conveys the same sense of hope. God’s creation plan had only just begun. The image of the Spirit of God hovering over the waters was meant to convey a sense of eager anticipation. Something incredible was about to take place that would escalate and expand to such a degree that the as-yet-unformed world would never be the same again.

And at this point in the narrative, Moses discloses, “And God said, ‘Let there be light,’ and there was light” (Genesis 1:3 ESV). The opening verses paint the picture of darkness and gloom but that depressing imagery is quickly replaced by the sudden appearance of light. But what is remarkable about this light is that it comes from an as-yet-undisclosed source. If we fast-forward to verses 14-18, we see that God has not yet created the sun, moon, or stars, so the source of the light mentioned in verse 3 cannot be cosmic in nature.

And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years, and let them be lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth.” And it was so. And God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night—and the stars. And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. – Genesis 1:14-18 ESV

So, what was the source of this light? If it didn’t emanate from the sun, what could be the explanation for its sudden presence? God seems to have spoken it into existence but that does not necessarily mean the light had not existed up until that point. God simply said, “Let there be light…” and, as Moses states, there was light. It appeared. The former darkness and its concomitant chaos were suddenly penetrated and completely eliminated by the illuminating presence of this light from God. And it is essential that we recognize the undeniable fact that God was the source of the light.

Referring to God, the prophet Daniel stated that “light dwells with him” (Daniel 2:22 ESV). The apostle John would later declare, “God is light, and in him is no darkness at all” (1 John 1:5 ESV). And John would ascribe that same attribute of illuminating glory to the Son of God.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it. – John 1:1-5 ESV

As this passage illustrates, light and the Godhead go hand-in-hand. In both the Old and New Testament Scriptures, light was used as a metaphor for such concepts as salvation, joy, knowledge, righteousness, and life. As John stated, Jesus was life and that life was the light of men. With His incarnation, He began the process of bringing true light and life to sinful men and women. His appearance brought the light of God into the spiritual darkness that permeated the world. As the light of the world, Jesus made salvation possible, joy accessible, the knowledge of God available, righteousness achievable, and eternal life attainable.

What is fascinating to consider is how John references Jesus’ role in the creation account. He states that all things were made through Him. In fact, he goes on to declare that “the world was made through him.”

The true light, which gives light to everyone, was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through him… – John 1:9-10 ESV

The apostle Paul adds further details that explain Jesus’ role in creation.

…for through him God created everything in the heavenly realms and on earth. He made the things we can see and the things we can’t see— such as thrones, kingdoms, rulers, and authorities in the unseen world. Everything was created through him and for him. – Colossians 1:16 NLT

And it’s no coincidence that Moses records God the Father declaring, “Let there be light…” and the light appeared. At the very beginning of the creation process God brings His “light” to bear. It would not be a reach to suggest that God called on His Son to join Him in the next phase of creation. And with His entrance into the scene, Jesus brought His light to bear as He “created everything in the heavenly realms and on earth” (Colossians 1:16 NLT).

One of the keys to understanding the source of this light that illuminated and eliminated the darkness can be found in the book of Revelation. There, the apostle John once again describes “the light of the world,” but this time this divine light source  will illuminate the future Kingdom of God.

And night will be no more. They will need no light of lamp or sun, for the Lord God will be their light, and they will reign forever and ever. – Revelation 22:5 ESV

Creation began with the light. Salvation was made possible by the light. And the light will be the source of illumination in the eternal state. As John put it so well, “In him was life, and the life was the light of men” (John 1:4 ESV).

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

New English Translation (NET)NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

The Salt of the Earth

34 “Salt is good, but if salt has lost its taste, how shall its saltiness be restored? 35 It is of no use either for the soil or for the manure pile. It is thrown away. He who has ears to hear, let him hear.” – Luke 14:34-35 ESV

Jesus had a lot of followers, but they weren’t all committed, stick-with-you-to-the-bitter end disciples. He knew that many of those within the crowds that followed Him from village to village were simply curious bystanders who found His messages intriguing and His miracles amazing. They were attracted to the carnival-like atmosphere that seemed to surround Jesus wherever He went. Yet, Jesus knew that their interest in Him would soon begin to wain, especially when they saw what lie in store for Him in Jerusalem.

That’s why Jesus told His followers, “Anyone who won’t shoulder his own cross and follow behind me can’t be my disciple” (Luke 14:27 MSG). He was letting them know that the days ahead were going to be filled with difficulty and the cost of following Him was about to increase exponentially. Being His disciple was going to become a dangerous and potentially deadly occupation.

To a certain degree, Jesus was letting His 12 disciples know that their world was about to be rocked. While He had repeatedly told them what was going to happen when they arrived in Jerusalem, they had not understood the significance of His words. To them, discipleship came with a rather low-cost commitment but it featured a tremendous upside. If Jesus truly was the long-awaited Messiah, then they stood to gain a great deal from their decision to follow Him. He was going to be the next king of Israel and, as His disciples, they believed they were poised to reap some serious rewards for their more than 3-year commitment to follow Him.

So, when Jesus began to talk about taking up your cross, the disciples must have been more than a bit confused and concerned. Suddenly, their decision to follow Jesus was beginning to sound like a huge mistake. What was all this talk about hating your father, mother, children, and siblings? Why would Jesus require that His disciples hate their own lives? None of this was what the disciples had signed up for.

Yet, Jesus was actually redefining the term “disciple.” He was giving it a much more robust meaning that conveyed a sense of high cost and commitment. Up until this point, following Jesus had been a relatively easy activity that required little in the way of real sacrifice. But all that was about to change.

This redefinition of discipleship was not what the disciples expected and it caught them off guard. And, even today, the term carried a lot of baggage with it. When we hear the word, “discipleship,” we tend to think of scripture memory, Bible studies, and classrooms filled with Christians who are really serious about their faith. Many of us consider discipleship as being reserved for those who want to be students of the Word. They are wired differently than the rest of us. They have a special capacity for learning deep doctrinal truth and a desire to spend countless hours alone – studying, memorizing, and meditating on Scripture. They are the spiritually elite and are not like the rest of us. They’re a super-spiritual breed who are a cut above the rest of us. They are the few, the proud, the Marines. Sorry, couldn’t resist.

Yet, when you read the words of Jesus you can’t help but notice that He really did expect His disciples to be a breed apart. They were to be special. But it is NOT a classification of people within the Christian community who just happen to take spiritual matters a little more seriously. If you are a follower of Christ, you are a disciple. In fact, Jesus made it quite clear that you had to be willing to shoulder your own cross before you could follow Him. You couldn’t be His disciple without it.

There is a cost to discipleship. There is a cost to following Christ. It was never intended to be easy. John MacArthur has this to say about the cost of discipleship: “Discipleship…more than just being a learner, being an intimate follower, having an intimate relationship, following to the point where you would go as far as death out of love. There’s no question about the fact that the only message Jesus ever proclaimed was a message of discipleship. The call that Jesus gave was a call to follow Him, a call to submission, a call to obedience. It was never a plea to make some kind of momentary decision to acquire forgiveness and peace and heaven and then go on living anyway you wanted. The invitations of Jesus to the lost were always direct calls to a costly commitment.”

There is a cost to following Jesus. But that is not a popular message. It never has been. It wasn’t popular when Jesus communicated it more than 2,000 years ago. His followers didn’t want to hear Him say, “Simply put, if you’re not willing to take what is dearest to you, whether plans or people, and kiss it good-bye, you can’t be my disciple” (Luke 14:33 MSG). This sounds harsh and demanding. But it is really the message of discipleship. Dallas Willard describes it as the life of an apprentice to Jesus.

“Being his apprentice is, therefore, not a matter of special ‘religious’ activities, but an orientation and quality of my entire existence. This is what is meant by Jesus when he says that those who do not forsake all cannot be his disciple. (Luke 14:26, 33) The emphasis is upon the all. There must be nothing held of greater value than Jesus and his kingdom. He must be clearly seen as the most important thing in human life, and being his apprentice as the greatest opportunity any human being ever has.” – Dallas Willard, How Does The Disciple Live

But to be a true disciple, my life needs to make a difference. It needs to have an impact on those around me. That’s why Jesus compared true discipleship to salt. And this was not the first time Jesus had used this analogy. He had said virtually the same thing in His sermon on the mount.

“You are the salt of the earth, but if salt has lost its taste, how shall its saltiness be restored? It is no longer good for anything except to be thrown out and trampled under people’s feet.” – Matthew 5:13 ESV

This was spoken at the beginning of His ministry to yet another crowd of so-called “followers.” Was Jesus insinuating that everyone in His audience was already salt? Was this His expectation of the Jews in His audience? To further complicate the issue, Jesus switched metaphors, using light as a illustration of the kind of impact citizens of the kingdom of God should have.

“You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden. Nor do people light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on a stand, and it gives light to all in the house. In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven.” – Matthew 5:14-16 ESV

Was He really inferring that everyone in His hearing was, at that moment, the light of the world? Did they already have the light of Christ within them? It would appear that Jesus was speaking prophetically, referring to those whom God would give Him as His followers. The apostle John would later recall the words Jesus prayed in the garden on the night He was be betrayed.

“I have revealed you to the ones you gave me from this world. They were always yours. You gave them to me, and they have kept your word. Now they know that everything I have is a gift from you, for I have passed on to them the message you gave me. They accepted it and know that I came from you, and they believe you sent me.

“My prayer is not for the world, but for those you have given me, because they belong to you. All who are mine belong to you, and you have given them to me, so they bring me glory. Now I am departing from the world; they are staying in this world, but I am coming to you. Holy Father, you have given me your name; now protect them by the power of your name so that they will be united just as we are.” – John 17:6-11 NLT

There would be some who followed Jesus who truly believed Him to be who He claimed to be. But their number would be small. The vast majority of those who heard His sermon on the mount would later leave Him. They would refuse to accept Him as their Messiah. They would deny their need for Him as their Savior. But there would be those who believed Him to be “the Christ, the Son of the living God” (Matthew 16:16 ESV). Those would be the ones who had the unique thrill of seeing Him appear in their midst in His resurrected form. They would be the ones He told to return to the upper room and wait for the arrival of the Holy Spirit. This small group of men and women would be transformed into salt and light, agents of change, who would powerfully and radically influence the world around them. The kingdom life, the life of spiritual poverty, meekness, mourning, mercy, purity and peacemaking, will set them apart from the world around them.

Two kingdoms:

The salt (the Church)                  The earth (the world)
Preserves                                           Prone to decay
Seasons                                                Spiritually bland
Disinfects                                            Diseased
Influential                                           Infectious

The light (the Church)                The world (sinful man)
Exposes sin                                        Loves darkness
Reflects the light of Christ       Marked by darkness
Lights the way to Christ            Blinded by darkness

Jesus was describing the church age, the era that would follow His death, burial, and resurrection, and result in the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. This is the period in which we find ourselves living. When the Holy Spirit came, the church was born. The disciples were empowered from on high, just as Jesus had told them. They were transformed into salt and light, agents of change in a world filled with decay and darkness. They spoke with power. They began to preach the message of salvation made possible through faith in Christ alone. And later on, the apostle Paul would take that same message to the Gentiles, revealing the truth that Jesus came to redeem men from every tribe, nation, and tongue.

Salt was a staple in that day. It was essential for life. It preserved meat. It prevented decay. If added flavor to what would have otherwise been bland and tasteless. Jesus was saying that the blessed will have influence in the world. But He warns against losing your saltiness. But can salt really become un-salty? No. But it can become diluted and contaminated. It can lose its effectiveness. And the apostle John tells us how.

Do not love this world nor the things it offers you, for when you love the world, you do not have the love of the Father in you. – 1 John 2:15 NLT

Our distinctiveness as followers of Christ can be diluted and diminished by this world. We can allow our love for the things of this world to overwhelm our effectiveness. We can lose our influence and find ourselves trampled down or overcome by the ways of this world.

What about light? It is intended to illuminate the darkness that surrounds it. Light exposes what is invisible to the eye in the dark. That is why Paul later wrote:

Take no part in the worthless deeds of evil and darkness; instead, expose them. It is shameful even to talk about the things that ungodly people do in secret. But their evil intentions will be exposed when the light shines on them, for the light makes everything visible.Ephesians 5:11-14 NLT

The lives of those approved by God will impact others. And the result will be conviction. That conviction will lead some to salvation, while others will respond in anger and resentment, resulting in persecution, reviling and slander, just as Jesus warned.

We are not to hide our light, in an effort to escape suffering. We are not to prefer darkness to the light, by hiding our light under a basket. We are to set it out for all to see. The apostle Paul tells us:

For God, who said, “Let there be light in the darkness,” has made this light shine in our hearts so we could know the glory of God that is seen in the face of Jesus Christ.

We now have this light shining in our hearts, but we ourselves are like fragile clay jars containing this great treasure. This makes it clear that our great power is from God, not from ourselves.  – 2 Corinthians 4:6-7 NLT

The unique thing about light is that it cannot be overcome by darkness. Darkness is nothing more than an absence of light. Jesus came to bring light into a dark world, and we are to be His agents, His representatives, allowing His light to flow from us into the darkness that surrounds us. Once again, the apostle Paul gives us some powerful words of exhortation:

Do everything without complaining and arguing, so that no one can criticize you. Live clean, innocent lives as children of God, shining like bright lights in a world full of crooked and perverse people. – Philippians 2:15-16 NLT

We are to be salt and light. We are to be agents of change, forces for good in a world full of crooked and perverse people. Our beliefs should change our behavior. The presence of the Spirit of God within us should make a lasting impact on the world around us. But has our saltiness become diluted? Have we allowed our light to become hidden and ineffective? The Kingdom life is meant to be a radically different life. It is meant to make an impact and leave a mark on the world around it. You are the salt of the earth. You are the light of the world. If you have been approved by God because you have placed your faith in His Son, you are a citizen of His kingdom, and a child in His family. You are to live like a child of that kingdom while you find yourself temporarily having to exist in this one.

Discipleship has a cost. So did our salvation. It cost Jesus His life. When I follow Him, He asks me to count the cost and determine whether I am willing to make His kingdom the most important thing in my life. Will I allow it to replace anything and anyone else? Will I, like Paul, count everything else as loss compared to knowing and following Jesus Christ as His disciple? (Philippians3:8).

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

A Glimpse of His Glory

28 Now about eight days after these sayings he took with him Peter and John and James and went up on the mountain to pray. 29 And as he was praying, the appearance of his face was altered, and his clothing became dazzling white. 30 And behold, two men were talking with him, Moses and Elijah, 31 who appeared in glory and spoke of his departure, which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 32 Now Peter and those who were with him were heavy with sleep, but when they became fully awake they saw his glory and the two men who stood with him. 33 And as the men were parting from him, Peter said to Jesus, “Master, it is good that we are here. Let us make three tents, one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah”—not knowing what he said. 34 As he was saying these things, a cloud came and overshadowed them, and they were afraid as they entered the cloud. 35 And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is my Son, my Chosen One; listen to him!” 36 And when the voice had spoken, Jesus was found alone. And they kept silent and told no one in those days anything of what they had seen. – Luke 9:28-36 ESV

Verse 27 of chapter 9 provides a link or bridge between Jesus’ teachings regarding the cost of discipleship and Luke’s account of the transfiguration.

But I tell you truly, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see the kingdom of God. – Luke 9:27 ESV

Jesus made this rather cryptic statement immediately after declaring, “For whoever is ashamed of me and of my words, of him will the Son of Man be ashamed when he comes in his glory and the glory of the Father and of the holy angels” (Luke 9:26 ESV). And this had followed close behind Jesus’ rebuke of Peter for refusing to accept God’s will concerning Jesus suffering, death, and resurrection. Peter had confessed that Jesus was the Christ but then had balked at the idea of Jesus dire pronouncement that “The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and on the third day be raised” (Luke 9:22 ESV). He had actually rebuked Jesus for saying such things.

The discussions recorded in chapter 9 reveal the growing tension among Jesus’ disciples as they try to reconcile their understanding of His identity as the Messiah with His speech and actions. They were confused by all His talk of suffering and death because it made no sense. When they heard Him tell the crowd, “If anyone would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross daily and follow me” (Luke 9:23 ESV), they had been stunned.

Jesus knew His disciples well, so He was fully aware of their apprehensions and fears. It’s likely that some of them were having second thoughts about their decision to follow Him. His arguments with the religious leaders had become embarrassing. There were all kinds of rumors circulating about Jesus and His followers. People pointed fingers at them. The disciples must have cringed every time someone said Jesus was crazy or possessed of a demon. His habit of speaking in parables left many confused, including them. So, when Jesus said, “whoever is ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him will the Son of Man also be ashamed when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels” (Mark 8:38 ESV), it was a not-so-subtle reference to their doubts and fears.

And that is why Jesus quickly added, “I tell you the truth, some standing here right now will not die before they see the Kingdom of God arrive in great power!” (Mark 9:1 NLT). He was not done providing His disciples with further proof of His identity and mission. He was about to confirm Peter’s earlier confession with incontrovertible evidence that He truly was the Messiah. A handful of His disciples were going to get a glimpse behind the curtain, providing them with front-row seats to a spectacular display of Jesus’ glory. Rather than the plainly-clad, thoroughly-human Rabbi they saw every day, they were going to see the glorified Son of God.

Luke’s buildup to this remarkable event is somewhat disappointing. He simply states that about eight days later, Jesus took three of His disciples “and went up on the mountain to pray. And as he was praying, the appearance of his face was altered, and his clothing became dazzling white” (Luke 9:28-29 ESV). Not exactly a riveting description of what must have been a momentous and life-changing experience for Peter, James, and John. Mark simply states that Jesus was transfigured before them. The Greek word is metamorphoō, and it means “to change into another form, to transform.”

Jesus’ appearance was suddenly and radically changed. We’re not told how it happened, or long it took for the transformation to take place. But Mark does give us a brief description of the final result: “his clothes became radiant, intensely white, as no one on earth could bleach them” (Mark 9:3 ESV). This imagery brings to mind John’s description of Jesus in the opening of his gospel.

In him was life, and the life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it. – John 1:4-5 ESV

The true light, which gives light to everyone, was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world did not know him. – John 1:9-10 ESV

The fact that John was one of the three disciples who were privileged to experience the transfiguration of Jesus helps to explain the nature of his description of Jesus as light.

And both Luke and Mark’s accounts of the transfiguration seem to provide a subtle link to another spectacular event where God’s glory was put on full display. It is recorded in the book of Exodus.

Then Moses climbed up the mountain, and the cloud covered it. And the glory of the Lord settled down on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for six days. On the seventh day the Lord called to Moses from inside the cloud. To the Israelites at the foot of the mountain, the glory of the Lord appeared at the summit like a consuming fire. Then Moses disappeared into the cloud as he climbed higher up the mountain. – Exodus 24:15-18 NLT

The gospel authors seem to be tying the manifestation of God’s glory to Moses on Mount Sinai to the manifestation of Jesus’ glory to His disciples. Jesus, the Son of God, appeared to them like a dazzling light, like a consuming fire. And accompanying Jesus was Moses himself along with the prophet Elijah.

Just imagine this spectacular scene. The three disciples are looking on in stunned silence as they witness Jesus, ablaze with glory, talking with two of the great patriarchs of the Hebrew people. We’re not told how the disciples recognized these two men, whom they had never seen before. It could be that as the disciples overheard the discussion between Jesus, Moses, and Elijah, their names were mentioned, or some clue was given as to their identity. Luke provides a bit more detail concerning the content of their discussion with Jesus.

Suddenly, two men, Moses and Elijah, appeared and began talking with Jesus. They were glorious to see. And they were speaking about his exodus from this world, which was about to be fulfilled in Jerusalem. – Luke 9:30-31 NLT

Peter, James, and John were given the privilege of listening in as Jesus, Moses, and Elijah discussed His “exodus.” The Greek word Luke used is exodos, and it means “departing.” There were no two people better qualified to discuss the topic of departing than Moses and Elijah. Moses had led the exodus of the people of Israel from Egypt. But He also had “departed” this life in a rather extraordinary manner.

Then Moses went up to Mount Nebo from the plains of Moab and climbed Pisgah Peak, which is across from Jericho…So Moses, the servant of the Lord, died there in the land of Moab, just as the Lord had said. The Lord buried him in a valley near Beth-peor in Moab, but to this day no one knows the exact place. Moses was 120 years old when he died, yet his eyesight was clear, and he was as strong as ever. – Deuteronomy 34:1, 5-7 NLT

When Moses’ work was done and his life’s days were finished, his burial service was conducted by God Himself.

And the account of Elijah’s “exodus” from this life is no less spectacular. The book of 2 Kings records that Elijah was walking along with his successor, Elisha, when something remarkable took place.

As they were walking along and talking, suddenly a chariot of fire appeared, drawn by horses of fire. It drove between the two men, separating them, and Elijah was carried by a whirlwind into heaven. Elisha saw it and cried out, “My father! My father! I see the chariots and charioteers of Israel!” And as they disappeared from sight, Elisha tore his clothes in distress. – 2 Kings 2:11-12 NLT

These two “experts” had personal “exodus” experience and were sharing their insights with Jesus. They discussed with Him the events that would surround His coming exodus from this world. And their words would have supported all that Jesus had told the disciples. They discussed the very events Jesus had predicted would happen in Jerusalem and that Peter had rebuked Him for sharing. And that’s when Peter spoke up. He couldn’t remain silent any longer.

As Moses and Elijah were starting to leave, Peter, not even knowing what he was saying, blurted out, “Master, it’s wonderful for us to be here! Let’s make three shelters as memorials—one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.” – Luke 9:33 NLT

Nervous excitement got the better of him. And whether he realized it or not, Peter stuck his foot in his mouth yet again. In a desire to prolong the moment, Peter suggested that he, James, and John build three small shelters for Jesus, Elijah, and Moses to live in. The Greek word he used is skēnē, which translates into “tabernacle.” It was almost as if Peter wanted to set up three little temples or holy structures to house these three extraordinary individuals. We can only speculate what was going through Peter’s mind, but it could be that he viewed the appearance of Elijah and Moses as the sign that Jesus was about to set up His Kingdom on earth.

The prophet Malachi had recorded the following promise of God:

“Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and awesome day of the LORD comes.” – Malachi 4:5 ESV

And Moses had predicted that God would raise up another prophet like him.

“The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your fellow Israelites. You must listen to him…” – Deuteronomy 18:15 NLT

And God gave Moses further insight into the role of this coming prophet.

“I will raise up a prophet like you from among their fellow Israelites. I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell the people everything I command him. I will personally deal with anyone who will not listen to the messages the prophet proclaims on my behalf.” – Deuteronomy 18:18-19 NLT

The final words in God’s prophecy are particularly pertinent to what happens next. Peter had expressed his misguided desire to prolong this holy convocation on the mountain top. But God interrupts his little speech and declares, This is my Son, my Chosen One; listen to him!” (Luke 9:35 ESV).

In essence, God was telling Peter to shut up and listen to what Jesus was trying to tell him. He had no business rebuking Jesus. There was no need for Peter to build tabernacles. He simply needed to listen.

And just as quickly as it had all started, it was suddenly over. The glory diminished, Elijah and Moses vanished, and the three disciples found themselves standing alone with Jesus. The two Old Testament prophets had made their exodus from the scene. Now, all that was left was for Jesus to face His own exodus from this world. He still had to face the reality of the cross. In a very short period of time, Jesus would find Himself alone. There would be no Elijah or Moses to comfort Him. His disciples would abandon Him. And rather than being cloaked in glory, Jesus would be mockingly draped in a purple robe and a crown of thorns. He would be ridiculed, beaten, and nailed to a wooden cross. And later, He would make His exodus from this life. All according to the sovereign will of His Heavenly Father.

God would have Peter remember: “I will personally deal with anyone who will not listen to the messages the prophet proclaims on my behalf” (Deuteronomy 18:19 NLT). And it seems that Peter and his companions took God seriously because “they kept silent and told no one in those days anything of what they had seen” (Luke 9:36 ESV). This once-in-a-lifetime experience had improved their hearing and increased their receptivity. From that moment forward they couldn’t help but see Jesus in a different light.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

The Great Reveal

16 “No one after lighting a lamp covers it with a jar or puts it under a bed, but puts it on a stand, so that those who enter may see the light. 17 For nothing is hidden that will not be made manifest, nor is anything secret that will not be known and come to light. 18 Take care then how you hear, for to the one who has, more will be given, and from the one who has not, even what he thinks that he has will be taken away.” Luke 8:16-18 ESV

It’s easy to assume that because Jesus was the Son of God, every time He spoke, the words that came out of His mouth were totally new and unique. In other words, He never said the same thing twice. He never repeated Himself. But the Old Testament is filled with evidence that even God the Father was in the habit of repeating Himself.

Just look at how many times God warned His people about making and worshiping false gods.

“You are not to make any gods alongside Me; you are not to make for yourselves gods of silver or gold.” – Exodus 20:23 BSB

“You shall not make for yourself any gods of cast metal.” – Exodus 34:17 ESV

“Do not turn to idols or make for yourselves any gods of cast metal: I am the LORD your God.” – Leviticus 19:4 ESV

“You must not make for yourself an idol of any kind, or an image of anything in the heavens or on the earth or in the sea.” – Deuteronomy 5:8 NLT

God constantly repeated Himself because His audience was constantly disregarding His commands. So, He made a habit out of reminding them of His expectation of faithfulness by repeating His prohibition against idolatry.

As the Son of God, Jesus was also in the habit of repeating Himself. He often said the same thing numerous times and on different occasions because His audience was constantly changing. But ultimately, His tendency to repeat Himself was for the benefit of His disciples. There were some messages that He wanted them to hear over and over again so that they might fully grasp His intended meaning and the lesson He was trying to convey.

In these five verses, Jesus conveys a series of short lessons that appear elsewhere in the gospels, but in different venues and at different times. But rather than view these as possible discrepancies or contradictions in the gospel accounts, it makes much more sense to understand them as examples of Jesus’ use of reiteration for the sake of emphasis and clarity.

For example, in his record of Jesus’ sermon on the mount, Matthew has Jesus stating something very similar to what Luke records in verse 16.

“You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden. Nor do people light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on a stand, and it gives light to all in the house.” – Matthew 5:14-15 ESV

In the same way, Mark includes yet another example of Jesus utilizing this imagery of the hidden light or lamp.

And he said to them, “Is a lamp brought in to be put under a basket, or under a bed, and not on a stand? – Mark 4:21 ESV

Jesus utilized the same basic imagery, but in this case, He had a different lesson He was trying to convey. Now, consider verse 17.

For nothing is hidden that will not be made manifest, nor is anything secret that will not be known and come to light. – Luke 8:17 ESV

Here, Jesus communicates another short, parable-like message that appears elsewhere in the gospels. Take a look at Matthew 10:26-27.

“So have no fear of them, for nothing is covered that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known. What I tell you in the dark, say in the light, and what you hear whispered, proclaim on the housetops.”

Luke records yet another instance of Jesus using this very same message, but in a completely different context and, in this case, Jesus ties it a warning concerning the Pharisees.

“Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. Nothing is covered up that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known. Therefore whatever you have said in the dark shall be heard in the light, and what you have whispered in private rooms shall be proclaimed on the housetops. – Luke 12:1-3 ESV

This pattern continues throughout this passage. In verse 24, Jesus states, “Pay attention to what you hear: with the measure you use, it will be measured to you, and still more will be added to you” (Mark 4:24 ESV).

Once again, Jesus used the same basic language in His sermon on the mount, but with a different point in mind.

“Judge not, that you be not judged. For with the judgment you pronounce you will be judged, and with the measure you use it will be measured to you.” – Matthew 7:1-2 ESV

Luke has Jesus saying the same message but at another time and place.

“Judge not, and you will not be judged; condemn not, and you will not be condemned; forgive, and you will be forgiven; give, and it will be given to you. Good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, will be put into your lap. For with the measure you use it will be measured back to you.” – Luke 6:37-38 ESV

Finally, in verse 18 of chapter 8, Luke reports that Jesus said, “for to the one who has, more will be given, and from the one who has not, even what he thinks that he has will be taken away.”

Matthew has Jesus saying the same thing on two different occasions.

“To you it has been given to know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been given. For to the one who has, more will be given, and he will have an abundance, but from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.” – Matthew 13:11-12 ESV

Towards the end of his gospel, Matthew includes yet another instance when Jesus used the same language, but in His parable of the talents. And, in this case, Jesus put the words in the mouth of one of the characters in His story.

“So take the talent from him and give it to him who has the ten talents. For to everyone who has will more be given, and he will have an abundance. But from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.” – Matthew 25:28-29 ESV

And Luke includes a similar parable that Jesus told, which also contained the same basic language.

“And he said to those who stood by, ‘Take the mina from him, and give it to the one who has the ten minas.’  And they said to him, ‘Lord, he has ten minas!’  ‘I tell you that to everyone who has, more will be given, but from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.” – Luke 19:24-26 ESV

So, what’s the point? It seems that Jesus understood and fully utilized the power of repetition as a teaching tool. And don’t miss His emphasis on hearing.

Take care then how you hear… ” – vs 18

It’s as if Jesus is saying, “Don’t miss this!” He is going to continue to repeat these truths until His disciples begin to grasp what it is He is trying to convey to them. These men were struggling to understand what was going on around them. They were becoming increasingly more convinced that Jesus was the Messiah, but so much of what He said had made no sense to them. His actions and cryptic-sounding messages were not in keeping with their expectations of the Messiah.

But in using the imagery of the lamp, Jesus was letting them know that they were being enlightened by the “true light” (John 1:9) and the “light of the world” (John 8:12). They were being exposed to the truth of God as revealed in the life of His Son. And that message, while still unclear to them at this point, was to be declared to all those around them. The day was coming when they would be expected to carry the light of the Gospel to the ends of the earth. It was not to be hidden or secreted away like some precious jewel, but it was to be revealed to all those living in the darkness of sin.

In an encounter that Jesus had with Nicodemus, a member of the Pharisees, He told this learned religious leader, “God’s light came into the world, but people loved the darkness more than the light, for their actions were evil. All who do evil hate the light and refuse to go near it for fear their sins will be exposed. But those who do what is right come to the light so others can see that they are doing what God wants” (John 3:19-21 ESV).

Jesus was that light, and He wanted His disciples to understand the illuminating nature of His ministry and mission. Light not only exposes darkness but also expels it. Darkness cannot remain where light exists. Paul put it this way:

Take no part in the unfruitful works of darkness, but instead expose them. For it is shameful even to speak of the things that they do in secret. But when anything is exposed by the light, it becomes visible, for anything that becomes visible is light. – Ephesians 5:11-14 ESV

Jesus was preparing His disciples for the inevitable. He had come to do the will of His Father and that was going to include His death on the cross. But that reality remained hidden from the disciples at this point. And even when Jesus began to divulge the truth concerning His pending death and burial, they would have difficulty understanding and accepting it.

But Jesus was going to keep telling them the truth. Slowly but surely, He would make them aware of the true nature of His mission. And, in time, they would grow to understand that the Light had come to expel the darkness by sacrificing His life for the sins of mankind. But God the Father would restore His Son to life, rekindling the Light of life and exalting Him to glory by restoring Him to His rightful place at His side.

And the apostle John reveals another point in time when Jesus will return to earth again and shine as the Light of the world once more. In the vision given to him by Jesus Himself, John saw the future, when Jesus will become the literal and eternal Light of the world, having dispelled all darkness and having eliminated the last vestige of night.

And I saw no temple in the city, for its temple is the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb. And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives it light, and its lamp is the Lamb. By its light will the nations walk, and the kings of the earth will bring their glory into it, and its gates will never be shut by day—and there will be no night there. – Revelation 21:22-25 ESV

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

A Love of Darkness

12 The iniquity of Ephraim is bound up;
    his sin is kept in store.
13 The pangs of childbirth come for him,
    but he is an unwise son,
for at the right time he does not present himself
    at the opening of the womb.

14 I shall ransom them from the power of Sheol;
    I shall redeem them from Death.
O Death, where are your plagues?
    O Sheol, where is your sting?
    Compassion is hidden from my eyes.

15 Though he may flourish among his brothers,
    the east wind, the wind of the Lord, shall come,
    rising from the wilderness,
and his fountain shall dry up;
    his spring shall be parched;
it shall strip his treasury
    of every precious thing.
16 Samaria shall bear her guilt,
    because she has rebelled against her God;
they shall fall by the sword;
    their little ones shall be dashed in pieces,
    and their pregnant women ripped open. – Hosea 13:12-16 ESV

The problem was not that Israel had sinned. God had fully expected them to do so and had made ample preparations for that inevitable prospect. The entire sacrificial system was based on the knowledge that God’s people would sin and was intended to provide them with a means of receiving atonement, forgiveness, and a restored relationship with Him. But the Israelites had become guilty of unrepentant sin. They had chosen to worship other gods, in direct violation of God’s commands. And they repeatedly refused to repent of their sin of spiritual adultery. Despite the warnings of God’s prophets, the Israelites continued to forsake Yahweh and offer their sacrifices, affections, and allegiance to false gods. This left them living in a state of unrepentant sin for which their many sacrifices provided no atonement or forgiveness.

God wanted to redeem, forgive, and restore them, but their unwillingness to repent made that impossible. He had promised to forgive their sins – if they would only repent.

“…if my people who are called by my name humble themselves, and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven and will forgive their sin and heal their land.” – 2 Chronicles 7:14 ESV

But God compares His stubborn people to an infant that refuses to go through childbirth. The mother goes through intense labor pains, attempting to bring her new baby into the world, but the child “resists being born” (Hosea 13:13 NLT). This fictitious scene is meant to expose the absurdity of Israel’s actions. Like a baby that chooses to remain in the comfortable and familiar environs of the womb, the Israelites had chosen to continue in their lifestyle of sin and apostasy.

The moment of birth has arrived,
    but they stay in the womb! – Hosea 13:13 NLT

God had great things in store for them – if they would only repent. He wanted to bless them with abundant life and all the benefits that would come with living in obedience to His just and holy commands. But they refused to repent. And because they refused to repent, the number of their unforgiven sins had increased exponentially, leaving them with a growing debt that could only be paid through death and destruction.

Whoever is steadfast in righteousness will live,
    but he who pursues evil will die.
Those of crooked heart are an abomination to the Lord,
    but those of blameless ways are his delight. – Proverbs 11:19-20 ESV

For the wages of sin is death… – Romans 6:23 ESV

But despite God’s desire that His people repent and return to Him, He is determined to punish them for their wickedness. He cannot turn a blind eye to their sin and simply act as if they have done nothing wrong. And while He is a loving, gracious, and compassionate God, He is also just and holy, and obligated to punish the iniquities of men. So, He asks a series of rhetorical questions:

“Should I ransom them from the grave?
    Should I redeem them from death?” – Hosea 13:14 NLT

And then God answers those questions with a clear declaration of Israel’s coming destruction.

“O death, bring on your terrors!
    O grave, bring on your plagues!
    For I will not take pity on them. – Hosea 13:14 NLT

This time, they would receive no rescue from God. He would not intervene on their behalf and prevent the inevitable consequences for their sins. They would pay, and they would pay dearly. But they could have escaped the consequences of death and the grave if they would have only repented and returned to God in humble contrition. Had they only been willing to confess their sins, He would have been faithful and just to forgive them. The apostle John points out the reality of that divine response to man’s humble act of repentance.

If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. – 1 John 1:9 ESV

It is interesting to note that, centuries later, Jesus Christ would appear on the scene in Israel, preaching the same message of repentance. Matthew records how Jesus began His earthly ministry by fulfilling the prophecy found in the book of Isaiah.

“…the people dwelling in darkness
have seen a great light,
and for those dwelling in the region and shadow of death,
on them a light has dawned.”

From that time Jesus began to preach, saying, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.” – Matthew 4:16-17 ESV

Despite Israel’s continued transgressions and ongoing refusal to repent, God would send His own Son to earth preaching a message of repentance to all those who were willing to listen and obey. But like all the other prophets before Him, Jesus would find His Israelite audience to be resistant to His message. They would be attracted by His miracles and curious about His identity, but they could not bring themselves to believe that He could forgive their sins. In his gospel account, the apostle John reveals that the Jews refused to receive Jesus and His message of repentance.

The true light, which gives light to everyone, was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world did not know him. He came to his own, and his own people did not receive him. – John 1:9-11 ESV

And John goes on to reveal that Jesus was sent by God in order to offer sinful mankind a way of receiving forgiveness rather than condemnation. Jesus was the gracious gift sent by God the Father that could provide all those living under the condemnation of death with a means of atonement, forgiveness, and redemption.

For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him. Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God. And this is the judgment: the light has come into the world, and people loved the darkness rather than the light because their works were evil. – John 3:17-19 ESV

Even in Jesus’ day, things had not changed. The people of Israel still loved the darkness rather than the light. Like an infant clinging to the familiar darkness of the womb and refusing to be born into the light of day, the Israelites were stubbornly holding on to their lifestyle of sin and refusing to step into the light of God’s forgiveness.

God would punish the northern kingdom of Israel for its refusal to repent. He would send the Assyrian army to destroy the capital city of Samaria and take tens of thousands of its citizens into captivity.

The people of Samaria
    must bear the consequences of their guilt
    because they rebelled against their God.
They will be killed by an invading army,
    their little ones dashed to death against the ground,
    their pregnant women ripped open by swords.” – Hosea 13:16 NLT

These words sound so harsh and barbaric to our modern sensibilities. They paint a portrait of God that we find unattractive and antithetical to our understanding of Him as a loving, gracious, and compassionate God. But we sometimes fail to understand that He is a holy and just God who cannot tolerate sin. His righteousness requires that He deal justly and decisively with all sin. But the truly amazing thing is that God had a plan in place that would deal with the deadly impact of sin and provide sinful mankind with a gracious and totally undeserved plan of escape. And it would be made possible through the gift of His Son. The apostle Paul reminds us of the wonderful secret regarding God’s plan of redemption.

But let me reveal to you a wonderful secret. We will not all die, but we will all be transformed! It will happen in a moment, in the blink of an eye, when the last trumpet is blown. For when the trumpet sounds, those who have died will be raised to live forever. And we who are living will also be transformed. For our dying bodies must be transformed into bodies that will never die; our mortal bodies must be transformed into immortal bodies.

Then, when our dying bodies have been transformed into bodies that will never die, this Scripture will be fulfilled:

“Death is swallowed up in victory.
O death, where is your victory?
    O death, where is your sting?”

For sin is the sting that results in death, and the law gives sin its power. But thank God! He gives us victory over sin and death through our Lord Jesus Christ. – 1 Corinthians 15:51-57 NLT

The Israelites would be punished for their sin. They would face the inevitable consequences of death and the grave. But God was not done. He would preserve a remnant of His people, and through that remnant, He would send His Son. Jesus, the Son of God, would be born into the tribe of Judah, of the seed of Abraham, and as a descendant of David. He would be sent by God to be the Savior of the world, offering His life as an atonement for the sins of mankind and as a means of receiving a restored relationship with a holy and just God. As the apostle Paul so aptly put it:

When we were utterly helpless, Christ came at just the right time and died for us sinners. – Romans 5:6 NLT

While Israel clung to the womb of sin and darkness, Jesus, the light of God’s glory, was born into the darkness of a sinful world in order to provide the gracious gift of God’s redemption and restoration.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A New Prophet But the Same God

Now when the Lord was about to take Elijah up to heaven by a whirlwind, Elijah and Elisha were on their way from Gilgal. And Elijah said to Elisha, “Please stay here, for the Lord has sent me as far as Bethel.” But Elisha said, “As the Lord lives, and as you yourself live, I will not leave you.” So they went down to Bethel. And the sons of the prophets who were in Bethel came out to Elisha and said to him, “Do you know that today the Lord will take away your master from over you?” And he said, “Yes, I know it; keep quiet.”

Elijah said to him, “Elisha, please stay here, for the Lord has sent me to Jericho.” But he said, “As the Lord lives, and as you yourself live, I will not leave you.” So they came to Jericho. The sons of the prophets who were at Jericho drew near to Elisha and said to him, “Do you know that today the Lord will take away your master from over you?” And he answered, “Yes, I know it; keep quiet.”

Then Elijah said to him, “Please stay here, for the Lord has sent me to the Jordan.” But he said, “As the Lord lives, and as you yourself live, I will not leave you.” So the two of them went on. Fifty men of the sons of the prophets also went and stood at some distance from them, as they both were standing by the Jordan. Then Elijah took his cloak and rolled it up and struck the water, and the water was parted to the one side and to the other, till the two of them could go over on dry ground.

When they had crossed, Elijah said to Elisha, “Ask what I shall do for you, before I am taken from you.” And Elisha said, “Please let there be a double portion of your spirit on me.” 10 And he said, “You have asked a hard thing; yet, if you see me as I am being taken from you, it shall be so for you, but if you do not see me, it shall not be so.” 11 And as they still went on and talked, behold, chariots of fire and horses of fire separated the two of them. And Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven. 12 And Elisha saw it and he cried, “My father, my father! The chariots of Israel and its horsemen!” And he saw him no more.

Then he took hold of his own clothes and tore them in two pieces. 13 And he took up the cloak of Elijah that had fallen from him and went back and stood on the bank of the Jordan. 14 Then he took the cloak of Elijah that had fallen from him and struck the water, saying, “Where is the Lord, the God of Elijah?” And when he had struck the water, the water was parted to the one side and to the other, and Elisha went over. 2 Kings 2:1-14 ESV

For years, the prophet Elijah had performed his role as God’s spokesman with faithfulness. He had been given the difficult assignment of prophesying on behalf of God during the reign of Israel’s most vile and apostate king – Ahab. To make matters worse, he had been forced to live with a bounty on his head, placed on him by the queen, Jezebel. She had sought to have him killed because he had executed 450 of the prophets to her false god, Baal. Elijah stood as a beacon of light in the spiritual darkness that pervaded the northern kingdom. It was a land filled with apostasy and evil, where Yahweh had been replaced by the pagan gods of Jezebel. Ahab, the king, and Elijah, the prophet, had become spiritual enemies who each represented the polar extremes of God’s relationship with the people of Israel. Ahab was an ambitious schemer who had long ago abandoned his relationship with Yahweh. He operated according to his own agenda and lived to satisfy his personal passions and desires. But Elijah was a man of intense faith who took great risks in order to fulfill the will of God. He regularly stood opposed to the wickedness that permeated Israel, sometimes feeling as if he was the last man standing.

I have been very jealous for the Lord, the God of hosts. For the people of Israel have forsaken your covenant, thrown down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword, and I, even I only, am left, and they seek my life, to take it away.” – 1 Kings 19:10 ESV

But God had proven to Elijah that he was far from alone. There were others who had refused to bow the knee to Baal, including the young man, Elisha, whom God had chosen to be Elijah’s replacement. And now that Ahab was dead, God made it clear that Elijah’s assignment was complete. He had done his job, and now it was time for him to receive his reward. God was going to call him home.

But Elijah’s departure would be anything but normal. God had something spectacular in store for Elijah’s final day on earth, and it would serve as a sign approving of Elijah’s faithfulness. But this remarkable event would also provide Elisha with the proof he needed that his all-powerful God would be with him as he began his role as Elijah’s replacement.

It seems evident from the text that God had previously informed Elijah that this would be his last day, and God had told him the nature of his departure.

the Lord was about to take Elijah up to heaven by a whirlwind. – 2 Kings 2:1 ESV

But Elijah did not seem to know exactly when or how this supernatural event would take place. He and Elisha began their journey in Gilgal, and three separate times Elijah gave his young protégé the opportunity to remain behind. By offering Elisha the option of staying behind while he continued his God-ordained journey, Elijah was testing the young man’s commitment. Was Elisha willing to stand beside his mentor as he followed the path God had laid out before him? And the answer seems apparent. Elisha repeatedly refused to abandon his mentor, saying, “As the Lord lives, and as you yourself live, I will not leave you” (2 Kings 2:2 ESV).

When they arrived in Bethel, Elisha was met by 50 prophets of Yahweh who questioned whether he knew of Elijah’s imminent departure. He assured them that he was well aware of what was about to happen and asked that they say nothing more about it. One can only imagine the fear and sadness that gripped Elisha as he considered the prospect of losing his friend and mentor. He was faced with the formidable task of filling the sandals of one of Israel’s greatest prophets. And he knew that the wickedness of Israel had not abated with Ahab’s death. Ahaziah had proven to be just as idolatrous and unfaithful as his father. When Ahaziah died after a short, two-year reign, his brother Jehoram became king, and he too followed in the footsteps of Ahab.

He did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, though not like his father and mother, for he put away the pillar of Baal that his father had made. Nevertheless, he clung to the sin of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which he made Israel to sin; he did not depart from it. – 2 Kings 3:2-3 ESV

So, Elisha was fully aware that he was going to have his work cut out for him. And Elijah’s repeated offers that he remain behind would have been extremely tempting. But he refused to compromise his convictions or renege on his commitment to remain by Elijah’s side. The two of them continued their journey from Bethel to Jericho, then on to the banks of the River Jordan. This circuitous route must have confused Elisha because it seemed to have them walking in circles. There appeared to be no clear destination in mind. Yet, Elisha stayed by Elijah’s side every step of the way.

When they arrived at the banks of the Jordan, “Elijah took his cloak and rolled it up and struck the water, and the water was parted to the one side and to the other, till the two of them could go over on dry ground” (2 Kings 2:8 ESV). Elijah’s cloak, like Moses’ staff, was a symbol of his God-given authority and power. And just as Moses used his staff to part the waters of the Red Sea, Elijah used his cloak to provide him and Elisha with a miraculous pathway through the waters of the Jordan. This display of supernatural power was meant to remind Elisha that he served a great God. But for the young prophet, it seems to have had a different result. He appears to have focused on his own inadequacy and ill-preparedness for what lay ahead. So, when Elijah asked him what he could do for him before departing, Elisha asked for a double portion of his spirit. Whatever it was that Elijah had, Elisha wanted twice as much. This was not a power grab or a sign of greed on Elisha’s part. It was an admission of need. He felt inadequate for the job. He didn’t believe that he measured up to Elijah’s standards. So, he asked for a double portion of Elijah’s spirit.

And Elijah seemed to indicate that the young man’s request, while difficult, was tied to his faithfulness. As long as he remained committed to staying by Elijah’s side, he would receive that for which he asked.

As they were walking along and talking, suddenly a chariot of fire appeared, drawn by horses of fire. It drove between the two men, separating them, and Elijah was carried by a whirlwind into heaven. – 2 Kings 2:11 NLT

Literally, out of nowhere, a fiery chariot appeared and separated the two men. This sudden and spectacular display of God’s power could have sent Elisha running for his life. But he remained where he was. And as he stood watching this remarkable scene, Elisha cried out, “My father! My father! I see the chariots and charioteers of Israel!” (2 Kings 2:12 NLT). But as he was distracted by the horses and chariots, Elijah had been carried away by a whirlwind. God had miraculously transported the great prophet into His presence.

And when Elisha came to his senses, he realized what had happened. All that was left of his friend and mentor was his cloak. Elijah was gone, and Elisha was on his own. Or was he? As he made his way to the eastern shore of the Jordan, Elisha held the cloak of Elijah in his hand. And as he stood facing the waters and the prospect of serving as the prophet of God, he cried out, “Where is the Lord, the God of Elijah?” (2 Kings 2:14 ESV). He knew that any hope he had of surviving his tenure as a prophet would be by placing His trust in the God of Elijah. He was going to need Yahweh’s presence and power to succeed. And when he struck the water with Elijah’s cloak, the water parted, and he crossed over on dry ground. Elijah was gone, but Elijah’s God was still there.

The mantel had been passed. Elisha was the God-appointed heir to Elijah. He had the cloak and the double-portion of Elijah’s spirit. But, more importantly, he had access to the power of God. And as Elisha walked across the dry river bed, he had no idea what challenges he would face in the days ahead. But he knew beyond a shadow of a doubt that he was God’s chosen vessel to carry on the work of Elijah. Evil still reigned in Israel. Darkness still pervaded the land. And Elisha was going to have his work cut out for him.

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

I Repeat Myself

21 And he said to them, “Is a lamp brought in to be put under a basket, or under a bed, and not on a stand? 22 For nothing is hidden except to be made manifest; nor is anything secret except to come to light. 23 If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.” 24 And he said to them, “Pay attention to what you hear: with the measure you use, it will be measured to you, and still more will be added to you. 25 For to the one who has, more will be given, and from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.” Mark 4:21-25 ESV

It’s easy to assume that because Jesus was the Son of God, every time He spoke, the words that came out of His mouth were totally new and unique. In other words, He never said the same thing twice. He never repeated Himself. But the Old Testament is filled with evidence that even God the Father was in the habit of repeating Himself.

Just look at how many times God warned His people about making and worshiping false gods.

“You are not to make any gods alongside Me; you are not to make for yourselves gods of silver or gold.” – Exodus 20:23 BSB

“You shall not make for yourself any gods of cast metal.” – Exodus 34:17 ESV

“Do not turn to idols or make for yourselves any gods of cast metal: I am the LORD your God.” – Leviticus 19:4 ESV

“You must not make for yourself an idol of any kind, or an image of anything in the heavens or on the earth or in the sea.” – Deuteronomy 5:8 NLT

God constantly repeated Himself because His audience was constantly disregarding His commands. So, He made a habit out of reminding them of His expectation of faithfulness by repeating His prohibition against idolatry.

But what does this have to do with today’s passage? As the Son of God, Jesus was also in the habit of repeating Himself. He often said the same thing numerous times and on different occasions because His audience was constantly changing. But ultimately, His tendency to repeat Himself was for the benefit of His disciples. There were some messages that He wanted them to hear over and over again so that they might fully grasp His intended meaning and the lesson He was trying to convey.

In these five verses, Jesus conveys a series of short lessons that appear elsewhere in the gospels, but in different venues and at different times. But rather than view these as possible discrepancies or contradictions in the gospel accounts, it makes much more sense to understand them as examples of Jesus’ use of reiteration for the sake of emphasis and clarity.

For example, in his record of Jesus’ sermon on the mount, Matthew has Jesus stating something very similar to what Mark records in verse 21.

“You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden. Nor do people light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on a stand, and it gives light to all in the house.” – Matthew 5:14-15 ESV

In the same way, Luke includes yet another example of Jesus utilizing this imagery of the hidden light or lamp.

“No one after lighting a lamp puts it in a cellar or under a basket, but on a stand, so that those who enter may see the light. Your eye is the lamp of your body. When your eye is healthy, your whole body is full of light, but when it is bad, your body is full of darkness. Therefore be careful lest the light in you be darkness.  If then your whole body is full of light, having no part dark, it will be wholly bright, as when a lamp with its rays gives you light.” – Luke 11:33-36 ESV

Jesus utilized the same basic imagery, but in this case, He had a different lesson He was trying to convey. Now, consider verse 22.

“For nothing is hidden except to be made manifest; nor is anything secret except to come to light.” – Mark 4:22 ESV

Here, Jesus communicates another short, parable-like message that appears elsewhere in the gospels. Take a look at Matthew 10:26-27.

“So have no fear of them, for nothing is covered that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known. What I tell you in the dark, say in the light, and what you hear whispered, proclaim on the housetops.”

Luke records yet another instance of Jesus using this very same message, but in a completely different context and, in this case, Jesus ties it a warning concerning the Pharisees.

“Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. Nothing is covered up that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known. Therefore whatever you have said in the dark shall be heard in the light, and what you have whispered in private rooms shall be proclaimed on the housetops. – Luke 12:1-3 ESV

This pattern continues throughout this passage. In verse 24, Jesus states, “Pay attention to what you hear: with the measure you use, it will be measured to you, and still more will be added to you”(Mark 4:24 ESV).

Once again, Jesus used the same basic language in His sermon on the mount, but with a different point in mind.

“Judge not, that you be not judged. For with the judgment you pronounce you will be judged, and with the measure you use it will be measured to you.” – Matthew 7:1-2 ESV

Luke has Jesus saying the same message but at another time and place.

“Judge not, and you will not be judged; condemn not, and you will not be condemned; forgive, and you will be forgiven; give, and it will be given to you. Good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, will be put into your lap. For with the measure you use it will be measured back to you.” – Luke 6:37-38 ESV

Finally, in verse 25, Mark reports that Jesus said, “For to the one who has, more will be given, and from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.”

Matthew has Jesus saying the same thing on two different occasions.

“To you it has been given to know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been given. For to the one who has, more will be given, and he will have an abundance, but from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.” – Matthew 13:11-12 ESV

Towards the end of his gospel, Matthew includes yet another instance when Jesus used the same language, but in His parable of the talents. And, in this case, Jesus put the words in the mouth of one of the characters in His story.

“So take the talent from him and give it to him who has the ten talents. For to everyone who has will more be given, and he will have an abundance. But from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.” – Matthew 25:28-29 ESV

And Luke includes a similar parable that Jesus told, which also contained the same basic language.

“And he said to those who stood by, ‘Take the mina from him, and give it to the one who has the ten minas.’  And they said to him, ‘Lord, he has ten minas!’  ‘I tell you that to everyone who has, more will be given, but from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.” – Luke 19:24-26 ESV

So, what’s the point? It seems that Jesus understood and fully utilized the power of repetition as a teaching tool. And don’t miss His emphasis on hearing.

“If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear… ” – vs 23

“Pay attention to what you hear…” – vs 24

It’s as if Jesus is saying, “Don’t miss this!” He is going to continue to repeat these truths until His disciples begin to grasp what it is He is trying to convey to them. These men were struggling to understand what was going on around them. They were becoming increasingly more convinced that Jesus was the Messiah, but so much of what He said had made no sense to them. His actions and cryptic-sounding messages were not in keeping with their expectations of the Messiah.

But in using the imagery of the lamp, Jesus was letting them know that they were being enlightened by the “true light” (John 1:9) and the “light of the world” (John 8:12). They were being exposed to the truth of God as revealed in the life of His Son. And that message, while still unclear to them at this point, was to be declared to all those around them. The day was coming when they would be expected to carry the light of the gospel to the ends of the earth. It was not to be hidden or secreted away like some precious jewel, but it was to be revealed to all those living in the darkness of sin.

In an encounter that Jesus had with Nicodemus, a member of the Pharisees, He told this learned religious leader, “God’s light came into the world, but people loved the darkness more than the light, for their actions were evil. All who do evil hate the light and refuse to go near it for fear their sins will be exposed. But those who do what is right come to the light so others can see that they are doing what God wants” (John 3:19-21 ESV).

Jesus was that light, and He wanted His disciples to understand the illuminating nature of His ministry and mission. Light not only exposes darkness, but it also expels it. Darkness cannot remain where light exists. Paul put it this way:

Take no part in the unfruitful works of darkness, but instead expose them. For it is shameful even to speak of the things that they do in secret. But when anything is exposed by the light, it becomes visible, for anything that becomes visible is light. – Ephesians 5:11-14 ESV

Jesus was preparing His disciples for the inevitable. He had come to do the will of His Father and that was going to include His death on the cross. But that reality remained hidden from the disciples at this point. And even when Jesus began to divulge the truth concerning His pending death and burial, they would have difficulty understanding and accepting it.

But Jesus was going to keep telling them the truth. Slowly but surely, He would make them aware of the true nature of His mission. And, in time, they would grow to understand that the Light had come to expel the darkness by sacrificing His life for the sins of mankind. But God the Father would restore His Son to life, rekindling the Light of life and exalting Him to glory by restoring Him to His rightful place at His side.

And the apostle John reveals another point in time when Jesus will return to earth again and shine as the Light of the world once more. In the vision given to him by Jesus Himself, John saw the future, when Jesus will become the literal and eternal Light of the world, having dispelled all darkness and having eliminated the last vestige of night.

And I saw no temple in the city, for its temple is the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb. And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gives it light, and its lamp is the Lamb. By its light will the nations walk, and the kings of the earth will bring their glory into it, and its gates will never be shut by day—and there will be no night there. – Revelation 21:22-25 ESV

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson

Just As God Intended

1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went out with his disciples across the brook Kidron, where there was a garden, which he and his disciples entered. Now Judas, who betrayed him, also knew the place, for Jesus often met there with his disciples. So Judas, having procured a band of soldiers and some officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, went there with lanterns and torches and weapons. Then Jesus, knowing all that would happen to him, came forward and said to them, “Whom do you seek?” They answered him, “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jesus said to them, “I am he.” Judas, who betrayed him, was standing with them. When Jesus said to them, “I am he,” they drew back and fell to the ground. So he asked them again, “Whom do you seek?” And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jesus answered, “I told you that I am he. So, if you seek me, let these men go.” This was to fulfill the word that he had spoken: “Of those whom you gave me I have lost not one.” 10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant and cut off his right ear. (The servant’s name was Malchus.) 11 So Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword into its sheath; shall I not drink the cup that the Father has given me?” John 18:1-11 ESV

For 17 chapters, John has gone out of his way in establishing the identity of Jesus as the Son of God. But at this point in the story, it would be easy to understand if a reader of John’s gospel began to question whether Jesus really was who He claimed to be. After all, Jesus Himself has admitted that He is going to die. He has warned that His own disciples are going to desert Him. For an uninformed observer, this could all begin to raise doubts about the validity of John’s claims about the divinity of Jesus.

And the scene described in chapter 18 will raise further doubts. But, in fact, John would argue that the scene that took place in the garden that fateful night, which he witnessed and later recorded, would be one of the greatest proofs of Jesus’ identity.

The scenes of betrayal, humiliation, suffering, and death that mark the end of Jesus’ life are not meant to call into question His identity, but to confirm it. While they appear to the human eye as evidence of defeat and failure, they are actually powerful proofs of God’s divine strategy for bringing about Satan’s fall and Christ’s victory over sin and death.

Because God’s children are human beings—made of flesh and blood—the Son also became flesh and blood. For only as a human being could he die, and only by dying could he break the power of the devil, who had the power of death. – Hebrews 2:14 NLT

He sent his own Son in a body like the bodies we sinners have. And in that body God declared an end to sin’s control over us by giving his Son as a sacrifice for our sins.
 – Romans 8:3 NLT

When reading the gospels, many Christians find themselves wishing these graphics scenes could have been left out. They would prefer to skip all the gory details concerning Jesus’ humiliating trials, merciless beatings, and agonizing crucifixion and death. Why couldn’t John just have fast-forwarded to that Hallmark-card image of the empty tomb? After all, isn’t that the point of the whole story? Jesus rose again.

But John wants us to understand that, without the crucifixion, there would have been no resurrection. And as painful as it may be to read about all that Jesus had to suffer and endure, it is essential that we understand the high price that Jesus paid. The apostle Peter would have us remember that our salvation didn’t come cheaply.

For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life you inherited from your forefathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or spot. – 1 Peter 1:18-19 BSB

And Paul told the believers in Corinth, “God paid a high price for you…” (1 Corinthians 7:23 NLT). That image of the empty tomb came with a hefty price tag.

So, as we read these all-too-familiar chapters, may we do so with a sense of awe and gratitude for what God ordained and Jesus fulfilled. Every step Jesus took, every blow He suffered, every nail driven into His body, and the very last breath He breathed were all part of the price He paid that we might be made right with God. Do not hurry through these uncomfortable moments in your rush to get to the empty tomb. Savor every painful, agonizing moment, because not only do they represent the high price God paid for your salvation, but they reveal the staggering scope of the debt you could not pay.

After having complete His high priestly prayer, Jesus led His disciples to the garden of Gethsemane. And it was in this familiar spot that Judas decided to carry out his plan to betray Jesus into the hands of the religious leaders.

So Judas, having procured a band of soldiers and some officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, went there with lanterns and torches and weapons. – John 18:3 ESV

Don’t miss the stark contrast contained in this scene. Jesus, the faithful Lamb of God, is in the company of his disillusioned and dispirited disciples. But Judas, the unfaithful disciple, is accompanied by armed soldiers and the sworn enemies of Jesus. You can sense the tension. And the fear and confusion of the disciples are almost palpable. But Jesus was unsurprised and unmoved by this obvious display of force. John juxtaposes the heavy drama of the moment with Jesus’ calm demeanor and measured response.

Jesus fully realized all that was going to happen to him, so he stepped forward to meet them. “Who are you looking for?” – John 18:4 NLT

This simple question is the key to understanding the Gospel of John. By asking it, Jesus is demanding that Judas and his associates confess who they believe Him to be. Early in His ministry, Jesus had asked His disciples a similar question: “Who do people say that I am?” (Mark 8:27 ESV). And their answers had been all over the map. So, Jesus had followed that question up with another one: “But who do you say that I am?” (Mark 8:29 ESV). And to that question, Peter responded, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God” (Matthew 16:16 ESV).

Now, in the darkness of the garden, illuminated by the glow of torches, the Light of the world asks Judas and his companions to reveal the identity of the one for whom they are seeking. And, unlike Peter, their response is neither bold or enlightened.

They answered him, “Jesus of Nazareth.” – John 18:5 ESV

They are simply looking for a man, and nothing more. They had not come looking for the Messiah. They weren’t expecting to encounter the Son of God. And their answer revealed all that they knew and believed about Jesus: What He was called and where He was from.

And Jesus responds to their answer by confirming that He was the one for whom they were looking. But His simple answer carries tremendous weight.

Jesus said to them, “I am he.” – John 18:5 ESV

In Greek, it reads, “I am!” Why is this important? This was the very same phrase Jesus used when stating the various aspects of His identity.

I am the bread of life.” – John 6:35 ESV

I am the light of the world.” – John 8:12 ESV

I am the door.” – John 10:7 ESV

I am the good shepherd.” – John 10:11 ESV

I am the resurrection and the life.” – John 11:25 ESV

I am the way and the truth and the life.” – John 14:6 ESV

I am the true vine.” –John 15:1 ESV

Every time Jesus uttered this two-word statement, He was declaring Himself to be God. He was echoing the very words spoken by Yahweh when He had appeared to Moses in the burning bush. When God had commissioned Moses to return to Egypt and lead the people of Israel out of captivity, Moses had asked, “If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what shall I say to them?” (Exodus 3:13 ESV).

And God had responded, “I am who I am” (Exodus 3:14 ESV). That was His name. It was a declaration of His transcendency and eternality. He was God, the alpha and omega, the beginning and the end. As God would later reveal through the prophet Isaiah, “I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god” (Isaiah 54:6 ESV).

And just to make sure Moses heard what He had said, God repeated His answer. “Say this to the people of Israel: ‘I am has sent me to you’” (Exodus 3:14 ESV).

So, when Jesus declared Himself to be “I am,” He was not-so-subtly declaring that He was far more than just Jesus of Nazareth. He was the very one Philip had told Nathanael about.

“We have found him of whom Moses in the Law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” – John 1:45 ESV

And John reveals the power inherent in Jesus’ self-proclaimed statement of identity by describing what happened when the words left His lips.

When Jesus said to them, “I am he,” they drew back and fell to the ground. – John 18:6 ESV

This was not a voluntary act of reverence or submission. It was an uncontrollable response to the power and presence of God almighty. Of no choice of their own, they were driven to the ground in submission and subjugation to the Son of God. It was a foreshadowing of a future day when all mankind will acknowledge Jesus as who He really is.

…at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue declare that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. – Philippians 2:10-11 NLT

But their submission proved to be shortlived. When they recovered their senses, they arrested Jesus but allowed His disciples to go free. And John reveals that this was in keeping with the declaration Jesus had made to His Father: “Of those whom you gave me I have lost not one” (John 17:12; 18:9 ESV).

Throughout this tension-filled scene, Jesus exhibits a strong sense of calm and composure. But Peter reveals the turmoil taking place within the hearts of the disciples. He draws a sword and cuts off the ear of one of the high priest’s servants. Rather than wield his sword against one of the armed guards, Peter attacks a defenseless slave. It was likely his attempt to prove his earlier boast to Jesus, “Even if everyone else deserts you, I will never desert you” (Matthew 26:23 NLT).

But Jesus calmly responded, “Put your sword into its sheath; shall I not drink the cup that the Father has given me?” (John 18:11 ESV). John ignores the fact that Jesus healed the ear of the servant. For him, the salient point behind this encounter was the willingness with which Jesus faced His God-ordained fate. What He was about to do, He would do willingly because, as He had told His disciples, “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and to accomplish his work” (John 4:34 ESV).

English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.

New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson