9 But when the archangel Michael, contending with the devil, was disputing about the body of Moses, he did not presume to pronounce a blasphemous judgment, but said, “The Lord rebuke you.” 10 But these people blaspheme all that they do not understand, and they are destroyed by all that they, like unreasoning animals, understand instinctively. 11 Woe to them! For they walked in the way of Cain and abandoned themselves for the sake of gain to Balaam’s error and perished in Korah’s rebellion. – Jude 1:9-11 ESV
You don’t have to be a theological scholar to recognize that Jude has a strong dislike for the false teachers about whom he is writing. You won’t find any grace or kindness in his words regarding them. He doesn’t paint them as well-meaning, but misinformed individuals who hold a slightly different view than his. He isn”t accommodating or concilatory. He shows no interest in compromise or making concessions. The issues these individuals are addressing are not up for debate and are not subject to their own personal opinions or views.
Jude saw their intentions as anything but well-meaning. In fact, he paints them as spies, describing them as having “crept in unnoticed” with the sole into to “pervert the grace of our God into sensuality and deny our only Master and Lord, Jesus Christ (Jude 1:4 ESV). These people were not to be trusted or tolerated. And Jude leaves no doubt as to the reason for his dislike for and disdain of them.
…these people—who claim authority from their dreams—live immoral lives, defy authority, and scoff at supernatural beings. – Jude 1:8 NLT
It seems that these individuals displayed a certain sense of super-spirituality, claiming to have received visions from God to back up their false teaching. And yet, Jude points out that their lives were marked by immorality, rebellion against authority, and a rejection of the supernatural. That last point is somewhat cryptic and difficult to understand, but Jude seems to be picking up on something that Peter dealt with in one of his letter.
He [God] is especially hard on those who follow their own twisted sexual desire, and who despise authority.
These people are proud and arrogant, daring even to scoff at supernatural beings without so much as trembling. But the angels, who are far greater in power and strength, do not dare to bring from the Lord a charge of blasphemy against those supernatural beings. – 2 Peter 2:10-11 NLT
It would appear that these false teachers were guilty of rejecting certain ideas concerning the supernatural realm, including the presence of demons or fallen angels. They scoffed at the idea, labeling it as nothing more than superstition. And yet, Peter made it clear that God took the presence of demons seriously.
For God did not spare even the angels who sinned. He threw them into hell, in gloomy pits of darkness, where they are being held until the day of judgment. – 2 Peter 2:4 NLT
And as Peter pointed out, even good angels refuse to speak a negative word regarding their fallen counterparts. As spiritual beings, they had a serious and reverent regard for the supernatural. But that was not the case for these false teachers. They thought they knew better. They saw themselves as smarter than angels.
But, to put it bluntly, the false teachers were nothing more than religious rebels, attempting to force their particular point of view on the unsuspecting believers within the local congregation. They had an open disregard for God’s point of view. And it appears that they treated the supernatural with disdain.
At this point, Jude uses what appears to be a well-known story regarding Moses, which is not recorded in the Bible. It is likely based on oral tradition and had been handed down among the Jewish community over the centuries. It was actually recorded in the apocryphal book, The Assumption of Moses. Jude’s use of this story shouldn’t necessarily be taken as proof of its authenticity. He was simply using its familiar details for the purpose of proving his point.
So that we might better understand the nature of Jude’s use of this story,
Taking into consideration the circumstances of the burial of Moses, we see that it was intended to be a secret transaction. The Lord, we are told (Deut. xxxiv.6), “buried him in a valley of the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor; but no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day.” Doubtless there was a good reason for this secrecy. The, proneness of the Jews to idolatry, the likelihood that the body of their great leader might become an object of adoration, even as the brazen serpent drew their hearts away in later time, the tendency to follow the creature-worship and to pay that undue reverence to relics which they had seen in Egypt, — these considerations may have led to the concealment of the body of Moses. And the devil wished to frustrate this purpose. He saw an opportunity of using the mortal remains of Moses to draw away the Israelites from true religion. He would have no mystery about the burial. The people should be shown their leader’s resting place; of the result he had no doubt whatever. And Michael, the appointed guard of the grave, as the Targum says, resisted this evil attempt of Satan, and firmly carried out the purpose of God. Using the words which God Himself had employed when the wicked spirit endeavoured to withstand His act of clothing Joshua, the high priest, in festal garments (Zech. iii.), Michael answered, “The Lord rebuke thee.” And in the unknown spot the body rested; or, at any rate, it was seen no more till it appeared to the wondering three on the Mount of Transfiguration fourteen hundred years later. –,
Jude is not validating the veracity of the story as much as he is using it in order to expose the sins of the false teachers. In the story, the angel Michael does not treat Satan with contempt or derision. He doesn’t speak with contempt, but simply says, “The Lord rebuke you.”
Jude is pointing out that the supernatural realm exists. And yet, “these people scoff at things they do not understand” (Jude 1:10 NLT). The Greek word translated as “scoff” is blasphēmeō, and it refers to irreverent or reviling speech. They were treating the things of God, the unseen and inexplicable things of God, with an air of arrogance and open disregard. And when they spoke, they did so in ignorance.
Jude compares the with dumb, unthinking animals who “do whatever their instincts tell them” (Jude 1:10 NLT). In other words, they were driven by their passions and controlled by their natural, fallen instincts. And Jude compares them to two notorious characters from history: Cain and Balaam. Both of these men had less-than-stellar reputations. Cain, driven by jealousy and the desire for revenge, committed the first murder, killing his own brother, Abel. Balaam, a prophet, disobeyed the expressed will of God and provided the enemies of Israel with a plan for causing their downfall. And what he did was driven by his desire for money. He sold out the people of God for personal gain. Both men were controlled by their sinful desires.
And, by comparison, so were these false teachers. And their actions were going to result in their own destruction. They were headed for a fall, because they were standing in opposition to God Himself. They were guilty of rebellion against God and, as a result, they would perish, just as Korah had. This is another reference to a well-known historic event recorded in the book of Numbers. Korah led a rebellion against Moses, claiming, “You have gone too far! For all in the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the Lord is among them. Why then do you exalt yourselves above the assembly of the Lord?” (Numbers 16:3 ESV). Korah disrespected Moses’ God-ordained leadership role and tried to usurp his authority. But God stepped in and destroyed Korah and all who joined his rebellion.
Jude is making it quite clear that the future for these false teachers will be unpleasant. If they continue down the path they have chosen, it will not end well for them. And he wants his readers to understand the danger in following the teaching of these misguided and self-obsessed individuals. They do not represent an alternative form of leadership. Their teaching is not to be treated as an acceptable option or viewpoint. It is to be rejected at all costs. They were to be seen as a danger to the faith community and a threat to the integrity of the gospel message. And they were to be avoided at all costs.
English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.