1 In the second year of Joash the son of Joahaz, king of Israel, Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, began to reign. 2 He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Jehoaddin of Jerusalem. 3 And he did what was right in the eyes of the Lord, yet not like David his father. He did in all things as Joash his father had done. 4 But the high places were not removed; the people still sacrificed and made offerings on the high places. 5 And as soon as the royal power was firmly in his hand, he struck down his servants who had struck down the king his father. 6 But he did not put to death the children of the murderers, according to what is written in the Book of the Law of Moses, where the Lord commanded, “Fathers shall not be put to death because of their children, nor shall children be put to death because of their fathers. But each one shall die for his own sin.”
7 He struck down ten thousand Edomites in the Valley of Salt and took Sela by storm, and called it Joktheel, which is its name to this day.
8 Then Amaziah sent messengers to Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz, son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying, “Come, let us look one another in the face.” 9 And Jehoash king of Israel sent word to Amaziah king of Judah, “A thistle on Lebanon sent to a cedar on Lebanon, saying, ‘Give your daughter to my son for a wife,’ and a wild beast of Lebanon passed by and trampled down the thistle. 10 You have indeed struck down Edom, and your heart has lifted you up. Be content with your glory, and stay at home, for why should you provoke trouble so that you fall, you and Judah with you?”
11 But Amaziah would not listen. So Jehoash king of Israel went up, and he and Amaziah king of Judah faced one another in battle at Beth-shemesh, which belongs to Judah. 12 And Judah was defeated by Israel, and every man fled to his home. 13 And Jehoash king of Israel captured Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Jehoash, son of Ahaziah, at Beth-shemesh, and came to Jerusalem and broke down the wall of Jerusalem for four hundred cubits, from the Ephraim Gate to the Corner Gate. 14 And he seized all the gold and silver, and all the vessels that were found in the house of the Lord and in the treasuries of the king’s house, also hostages, and he returned to Samaria.
15 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoash that he did, and his might, and how he fought with Amaziah king of Judah, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel? 16 And Jehoash slept with his fathers and was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel, and Jeroboam his son reigned in his place.
17 Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, lived fifteen years after the death of Jehoash son of Jehoahaz, king of Israel. 18 Now the rest of the deeds of Amaziah, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah? 19 And they made a conspiracy against him in Jerusalem, and he fled to Lachish. But they sent after him to Lachish and put him to death there. 20 And they brought him on horses; and he was buried in Jerusalem with his fathers in the city of David. 21 And all the people of Judah took Azariah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king instead of his father Amaziah. 22 He built Elath and restored it to Judah, after the king slept with his fathers. – 2 Kings 14:1-22 ESV
When King Jehoash of Judah was assassinated by two of his own servants, his son Amaziah ascended to the throne. He was only 25-years-old when he assumed leadership over the nation of Judah, and one of his first official acts as king was to avenge his father’s death by executing the guilty parties. But Amaziah showed self-restraint and an appreciation for the Mosaic law, by refusing to seek revenge against the families of those who had perpetrated this crime. He could have used his power to wipe out every last descendant of his father’s assassins, but he would have been in clear violation of the law God had given to Moses and the people of Israel.
Fathers shall not be put to death because of their children, nor shall children be put to death because of their fathers. Each one shall be put to death for his own sin. – Deuteronomy 24:16 ESV
His knowledge of the law and his willingness to adhere to it was a good sign and an indication of his desire to follow the will of Yahweh. But it would soon become evident that his dedication to God was impartial and incomplete.
Amaziah did what was pleasing in the Lord’s sight, but not like his ancestor David. Instead, he followed the example of his father, Joash. – 2 Kings 14:3 NLT
Amaziah was his father’s son. He tended to replicate Jehoash’s half-hearted commitment to Yahweh rather than the whole-hearted dedication of his ancestor David. It was said of his father, “All his life Joash did what was pleasing in the Lord’s sight because Jehoiada the priest instructed him. Yet, even so, he did not destroy the pagan shrines, and the people still offered sacrifices and burned incense there” (2 Kings 12:2-3 NLT). As long as Jehoiada the priest remained alive, providing Jehoash with wise and godly counsel, the kind did well. But upon the priest’s death, Jehoash began to listen to the advice of his princes, who encouraged him to introduce idolatry to Judah. With his permission, they “decided to abandon the Temple of the Lord, the God of their ancestors, and they worshiped Asherah poles and idols instead! ” (2 Chronicles 24:18 NLT).
And when God ordered Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada the priest, to deliver a message to Jehoash condemning his actions, the king had him stoned to death. And it was this act that led to his death by assassination.
So, Amaziah tended to mimic his father’s leadership style. He displayed a desire to follow Yahweh but failed to make it a top priority of his administration.
Amaziah did what was pleasing in the Lord’s sight, but not wholeheartedly. – 2 Chronicles 25:2 NLT
At one point during his reign, Amaziah took a census in order to determine the strength of his fighting force. In those days, the nations didn’t always maintain a standing army but relied upon conscription. In the case of war, they would issue a draft that called upon all able-bodied men to come to the defense of their country. Amaziah’s census revealed that his army consisted of “300,000 select troops, twenty years old and older, all trained in the use of spear and shield” (2 Chronicles 25:5 NLT). Deeming this number to be insufficient, Amaziah ordered the hiring of “100,000 experienced fighting men from Israel” (2 Chronicles 25:6 NLT). He used his royal treasury to hire mercenaries. But God sent a prophet who warned him against trusting the Israelites.
“Your Majesty, do not hire troops from Israel, for the Lord is not with Israel. He will not help those people of Ephraim! If you let them go with your troops into battle, you will be defeated by the enemy no matter how well you fight. God will overthrow you, for he has the power to help you or to trip you up.” – 2 Chronicles 25:7-8 NLT
And, unlike his father, Amaziah listened to the prophet’s advice and dismissed the Israelite troops. These men returned to Israel offended and infuriated by the king’s action. They would later seek their revenge by raiding and plundering towns belonging to Judah that lay along the border between their two countries. These raids resulted in the deaths of 3,000 Judean citizens.
But meanwhile, Amaziah launched a campaign against the Edomites, who had revolted against Judean control in the region. His troops were successful, killing 10,000 Edomites in the initial battle, and then slaughtering an additional 10,000 captives by throwing them off a cliff. This decisive victory led Amaziah to set his sights on Israel. He determined that with his army and God’s help, he could defeat the Israelites in battle. So, he sent word to King Jehoash of Israel, issuing him a challenge to meet on the field of battle.
But there was a problem. Amaziah didn’t have God on his side. In fact, his victory over the Edomites had actually angered God because Amaziah had made the fateful mistake of bringing back Edomite idols as part of the spoils of war.
When King Amaziah returned from slaughtering the Edomites, he brought with him idols taken from the people of Seir. He set them up as his own gods, bowed down in front of them, and offered sacrifices to them! This made the Lord very angry… – 2 Chronicles 25:14-15 NLT
This prompted God to send another prophet with another word of warning to the king.
“Why do you turn to gods who could not even save their own people from you?” – 2 Chronicles 25:15 NLT
But this time, rather than heed the prophet’s warning, Amaziah threatened him.
“Since when have I made you the king’s counselor? Be quiet now before I have you killed!” – 2 Chronicles 25:16 NLT
The prophet, undeterred by the king’s threat, warned him that God would bring destruction upon Judah if he proceeded with his plans to do battle with Israel. But Amaziah rejected the word of the Lord, sending his challenge to King Jehoash of Israel. Even Jehoash tried to convince Amaziah that he had become a bit overconfident with his victory over the Edomites. By picking a fight with Israel, Amaziah was biting off far more than he could chew, and it would end in disaster for Judah. But Amaziah rejected the words of King Jehoash and sent his troops into battle against the Israelites. And the results were predictable.
Judah was routed by the army of Israel, and its army scattered and fled for home. King Jehoash of Israel captured Judah’s king, Amaziah son of Joash and grandson of Ahaziah, at Beth-shemesh. Then he marched to Jerusalem, where he demolished 600 feet of Jerusalem’s wall, from the Ephraim Gate to the Corner Gate. He carried off all the gold and silver and all the articles from the Temple of the Lord. He also seized the treasures from the royal palace, along with hostages, and then returned to Samaria. – 2 Kings 14:12-14 NLT
This devastating and humiliating defeat was the handiwork of God. Amaziah’s decision to bring back idols from Edom and set them up in Jerusalem, reveals not only his unfaithfulness but his stupidity. After his defeat and capture, Amaziah must have heard the words of the prophet ringing in his ears: “Why do you turn to gods who could not even save their own people from you?”
He had bowed down to the false gods of Edom and, as a result, was punished severely by the one true God. Yet, even after this decisive defeat, Amaziah would go on to reign over Judah for an additional 15 years. But just as Amaziah had emulated his father’s life, he would end up replicating his death.
There was a conspiracy against Amaziah’s life in Jerusalem, and he fled to Lachish. But his enemies sent assassins after him, and they killed him there. They brought his body back to Jerusalem on a horse, and he was buried with his ancestors in the City of David. – 2 Kings 14:19-20 NLT
His 29-year reign would end with his assassination. And 2 Chronicles seems to indicate that his death was a direct result of his unfaithfulness. There were those in Jerusalem who blamed the loss to the Israelites on Amaziah’s decision to forsake Yahweh, and they decided to take matters into their own hands.
After Amaziah turned away from the Lord, there was a conspiracy against his life in Jerusalem. – 2 Chronicles 25:27 NLT
Amaziah was murdered, given a royal funeral, and then replaced by his 16-year-old son, Uzziah. And the saga continues.
English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.
The Message (MSG)Copyright © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, 2002 by Eugene H. Peterson