13 “Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 14 But it will be more bearable in the judgment for Tyre and Sidon than for you. 15 And you, Capernaum, will you be exalted to heaven? You shall be brought down to Hades.
16 “The one who hears you hears me, and the one who rejects you rejects me, and the one who rejects me rejects him who sent me.” – Luke 10:13-16 ESV
After commissioning and sending the 72 emissaries with instructions to deliver His message concerning the kingdom, Jesus delivered a public indictment against a handful of the cities He had visited during His Galilean ministry. He included the cities of Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum, each located on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee. But why did Jesus condemn and curse these particular cities, and why did He choose to do it at this time in His ministry?
Jesus was on His way to Jerusalem and had already entered the region of Samaria, which separated Galilee in the north from Judea in the south. The messengers He had just sent were instructed to visit the villages and towns He would pass through along His way to Jerusalem. So, that would imply that their destinations were all within the regions of Samaria and Judea.
Jesus had just wrapped a lengthy mission in Galilee, the region in which He was born. In a sense, the Galileans were His people. Bethlehem, His birthplace, was located there, as well as Nazareth, the town in which He was raised. Capernaum had become His unofficial headquarters not long after He began His earthly ministry.
But this still begs the question, why did Jesus choose to level His anger against these three particular cities in Galilee? And this is not the only time Jesus made examples of Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum. Matthew records another incident when Jesus referred to these same Galilean cities in a less-than-flattering light.
Then he began to denounce the cities where most of his mighty works had been done, because they did not repent. “Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.” – Matthew 11:20-21 ESV
On this occasion, Jesus had just responded to the doubts of John the Baptist. Imprisoned by Herod, John had sent word to Jesus, asking whether He really was the one they had been expecting or should they expect another (Matthew 11:3). Sitting in a dank prison cell, John was having second thoughts about Jesus’ identity as the Messiah. Things were not turning out quite the way he had expected. And Jesus had responded to John’s doubts with a message that declared the prophetic nature of His role.
“Go back to John and tell him what you have heard and seen—the blind see, the lame walk, those with leprosy are cured, the deaf hear, the dead are raised to life, and the Good News is being preached to the poor.” And he added, “God blesses those who do not fall away because of me.” – Matthew 11:4-6 NLT
Not long after this exchange with John, “began to denounce the towns where he had done so many of his miracles, because they hadn’t repented of their sins and turned to God” (Matthew 11:20 NLT). With these words, Matthew provides us with a partial answer to the question as to why Jesus indicted these particular cities, and it all had to do with belief.
Jesus had done a great many miracles in the vicinity of these cities, but, despite their personal exposure to Jesus’ power, the residents of these cities had failed to repent. They had been eye-witnesses to the miraculous nature of Jesus’ ministry, and they had heard His message of repentance, but they had refused to accept that call. Instead, they displayed a stubborn resistance to the signs of His Messiahship and His offer of forgiveness for sins. They loved what their eyes had seen, but rejected what their ears had heard.
These verses mark a watershed moment in the life and ministry of Jesus. Up to this point, He has spent most of His time ministering in and around this region of Israel. His base of operations had been located in the city of Capernaum. He had preached His sermon on the mount not far from there. The miracle of the feeding of the 5,000 took place not far from Bethsaida. The people living in and around these three cities had been privileged to witness His works and hear His words but had failed to grasp the truth that Jesus was the Messiah.
Back in chapter 10 of Matthew’s gospel, Jesus had commissioned the 12 for their first missionary journey. And He had given them specific instructions to avoid any Galilean or Samaritan cities.
“Go nowhere among the Gentiles and enter no town of the Samaritans, but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. And proclaim as you go, saying, ‘The kingdom of heaven is at hand.’ Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse lepers, cast out demons.” – Matthew 10:5-8 ESV
Not only had Jesus limited their ministry to the Jews, but He had told them to focus their attention on those who would receive them and their message.
“And whatever town or village you enter, find out who is worthy in it and stay there until you depart. As you enter the house, greet it. And if the house is worthy, let your peace come upon it, but if it is not worthy, let your peace return to you. And if anyone will not receive you or listen to your words, shake off the dust from your feet when you leave that house or town. Truly, I say to you, it will be more bearable on the day of judgment for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah than for that town.” – Matthew 10:11-15 ESV
Notice what Jesus told His disciples. If the residents of a city or home refused to receive them or listen to their words, they were to “shake off the dust” from their feet.
To shake the dust off represented, on one level, shaking off the uncleanness from one’s feet. At another level, however, it is similar to a prophetic sign, representing the termination of all fellowship with those individuals or localities that have rejected the messengers along with their message of the coming kingdom of heaven. This in essence constitutes a sign of eschatological judgment, as confirmed in the following verse. (NET Bible study notes)
Accepting the miracles performed by the disciples while rejecting their call to repentance would be unacceptable. Physical restoration without spiritual regeneration would not be enough. As Jesus later told the Pharisee, Nicodemus: “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God” (John 3:3 ESV).
And Jesus had given these same instructions to the 72.
“But whenever you enter a town and they do not receive you, go into its streets and say, ‘Even the dust of your town that clings to our feet we wipe off against you.’” – Luke 10:10 ESV
Jesus makes it clear that repentance is key to any hope of spiritual regeneration. And this applied to Jews and Gentiles alike. Everyone must change their minds and embrace their need for a Savior. The Jew’s status as God’s chosen people would not be enough to save them. Their confident assumption that their Hebrew heritage was enough was going to have to change. But Jesus knew that wasn’t going to happen. In fact, He asserts that the predominantly Gentile cities of Tyre and Sidon would fare better on the day of judgment than these three Jewish communities. Jesus had gone out of His way to take the message of the kingdom to His own people. He performed the majority of His miracles in their presence. He displayed His power among them and declared the coming of His kingdom to them. But they had refused to listen. And just to make sure His audience understood the severity of His words, Jesus compared them to the infamous city of Sodom. According to Jesus, the wicked inhabitants of Sodom would have repented if they been seen only a fraction of the mighty works of God done among the cities of Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum.
It’s interesting to note that Mark records that Jesus eventually removed Himself from Galilee and made His way to Tyre and Sidon (see Mark 7:24). He performed miracles there, including casting out a demon from a young Gentile girl whose mother was a Syrophoenician. Mark also records that when the woman begged Jesus to help her, He responded, “Let the children be fed first, for it is not right to take the children’s bread and throw it to the dogs” (Mark 7:27 ESV). But the woman, nonplussed by His response, simply said, “Yes, Lord; yet even the dogs under the table eat the children’s crumbs” (Mark 7:28 ESV).
And, amazed by the woman’s faith, Jesus told her, “For this statement you may go your way; the demon has left your daughter” (Mark 7:29 ESV). The woman believed, and her daughter was healed. She did not defend her status or become offended that Jesus had compared her to a dog. She simply expressed her belief that, in spite of her lowly status as a non-Jew, Jesus would extend mercy and grace to her. And He did.
One of the things that Jesus was looking for from those to whom He ministered was a recognition of their need. That is why He tended to minister to those who came to them with their disabilities, pains, brokenness, and extreme sense of unworthiness. That is why Jesus had said:
“Healthy people don’t need a doctor – sick people do. I have come to call not those who think they are righteous, but those who know they are sinners.” – Mark 2:17 NLT
A major aspect of repentance is the acknowledgment of sin and the need for salvation – a salvation outside of oneself. The people who came to Jesus for physical healing did so because they had either exhausted all other avenues or their ailment was beyond the scope of human help. They were forced to turn to Jesus in the hope that He could do something about their problem. But the same would be true for those who suffered from the disease and destruction caused by sin. That is why Jesus would offer what has become known as the Great Invitation, which we will cover tomorrow,
“Come to me, all of you who are weary and carry heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” – Matthew 11:28 NLT
The city of Capernaum was filled with God-fearing Jews who believed they were the chosen people of God and so, in no need of a Savior. But Jesus asked them rhetorically, “will you be exalted to heaven?” And, just in case they failed to understand that the question was rhetorical, He clarified the answer for them.
“You will be brought down to Hades. For if the mighty works done in you had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day.” – Matthew 11:23 ESV
They would end up rejecting His message and His offer of salvation. And the result would be judgment and eternal punishment. Their refusal to accept Him as Messiah would have dire consequences. They would remain unrepentant and sadly, unforgiven.
As Jesus prepared to make His way to Jerusalem, He knew what awaited Him there. He had already told His disciples that He would face rejection, suffer death, and be raised back to life. The greatest miracle was yet to be performed. Yet, even when Jesus had been crucified, buried, and resurrected, there would still be those who refused to believe. Like the citizens of Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum, they would reject God’s proof of His Son’s identity as the Messiah. And even the disciples would wrestle with doubt when they heard the news, “he has risen” (Matthew 28:26 ESV).
English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. ESV® Permanent Text Edition® (2016). Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
New Living Translation (NLT) Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.